new week 9 (posted 16 Oct. 2014)

It is not so very important for a person to learn facts. For that he does not really need a college. He can learn them from books. The value of an education in a liberal arts college is not the learning of many facts but the training of the mind to think something that cannot be learned from textbooks. (Albert Einstein, 1921, in response to Thomas Edison’s opinion that a college education is useless)

The growing precision of our understanding should enhance, and not diminish our sense of wonder. (Alfred Brendel)

In much wisdom is much vexation, and those who increase knowledge increase in sorrow. (Ecclesiastes 1.18)

Education is not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire. (William Butler Yeats)

You must unlearn what you have learned. (Yoda, Star Wars V: Empire Strikes Back)

The unexamined life is not worth living. (Socrates [Plato, Apology, 38a])

ΕΝ ΟΙΔΑ ΟΤΙ ΟΥΔΕΝ ΟΙΔΑ. (= Ἓν οἶδα ὅτι οὐδὲν οἶδα.; Socrates)

ΓΝĹΘΙ ΣΕΑΥΤΟΝ. (= Γνῶθι σεαυτόν.; Temple of Apollo at Delphi)new


exegesis guidelines


Na home

Westminster College

REL 301: Applied Biblical Interpretation

Fall 2014

Welcome to Religion 301: Applied Biblical Interpretation! As the course title indicates, our main objective is to examine biblical texts for meaning(s) and to explore possible ways in which the meaning(s) can be applied in various contexts (e.g., church education, ethics, politics, mission, preaching, theology, military chaplaincy, hospital chaplaincy, nursing home, orphanage). More specifically, our aim will be to:

•   clarify what the Bible is and to consider its significance for Western civilization, the church, and for us

•   become acquainted with various approaches to biblical interpretation

•   become familiar with the methodological issues involved in biblical interpretation

•   consider the distinction between biblical theology and dogmatic theology

•   read carefully and critically passages from a variety of biblical books

•   explore the meaning of biblical passages in their historical contexts (e.g., cultural, geographical, literary, political contexts) as well as in relation to contemporary thought, and to discern the issues arising from them, especially in the light of contemporary contexts

•   cultivate a reading of biblical texts that is both critical and creative by developing exegetical skills using modern methods of interpretation

•   explore creative ways to transform the fruits of exegesis into practical application


Achieving these goals will require hard work on your part, which will bring many challenging, enlightening, exciting, frustrating, and rewarding experiences.


Accessibility Statement:

Westminster College actively strives for the full inclusion of all our students. Students with disabilities who require access solutions for environmental or curricular barriers should contact Faith Craig, Director of Disability Resources: 209 Thompson-Clark Hall; 724-946-7192;



This course is designed for students who have already taken at least one course on the Bible (e.g., 101, 106, 107) and have some familiarity with biblical exegesis.


Requirements and evaluation for the course


For my criteria for evaluation of assignments go to Evaluation and read the information carefully.

N.B.: If you have any questions about any assignment, please ask in class or make an appointment to see me.

N.B.: If you have any questions about any evaluation or how you are doing in the course, please make an appointment to see me.




Assigned readings should be completed before the class for which they are assigned—use your best judgment to divide the readings evenly for each week.

Occasionally I may assign additional readings, but these will ordinarily be short. You must come to class with at least 2 written questions or comments in response to the readings (see Participation). Cultivate the ability to ask informed questions about the readings based on the knowledge you gain along the way; the demonstration of your ability to formulate questions will affect the evaluation of your semester grade. The primary focus throughout the course will be on the biblical texts and their application. Keeping notes on the readings is highly recommended. I would encourage you to use this form for every reading assignment (also on my.westminster).

N.B.: Not all the assigned readings may be covered in class discussions or exams, but they are assigned for your edification in achieving the goals of the course. The more you refer to them in class and in your work, the better your mastery of the readings will be. Your use of them in class discussion and in your work will affect the evaluation of your semester grade.



Classes will be conducted as quasi-seminars. The instructor will present some materials, but much of the class will be designated for discussion of the readings. You will prepare a 10-minute discussion starter during the semester presenting

•   the main idea(s) or main point(s) of the reading assignment (see the course schedule below for the texts in bold to be presented)

•   your critique or response to it (including references to previous readings)—this should be the focus and main portion of the presentation

Include within your presentation critical questions, challenges, discoveries, insights, etc. that you had while, or after, reading the assignment—these will initiate class discussion following your presentation


You are expected to have read the text(s) thoroughly and be able to share the penetrating questions or issues you dealt with in your reading, preparation, or even further research. N.B.: you do not necessarily have to understand everything before class, but you should demonstrate that you prepared and that you can discern, and are familiar with, the major issues in the text(s). Remember that questions are more valuable than answers.


See my Evaluation page under Presentations for evaluation criteria (do not be concerned about the “Communication Skills” section of the Presentation evaluation page). If you wish to use a PowerPoint presentation, let me know in advance.


Each of you will lead a discussion at least once during the semester (twice, if time permits). When you will be asked, only the muses know. If you are not prepared to do so for some reason, let me know before the class begins, so that I will not call on you.

N.B.: You should prepare notes for each class as if you were the discussion leader. I.e., everyone is expected to do the preparatory work, not just the presenter.


You will prepare a 30-minute presentation focusing on the text(s) assigned for your particular day (see the schedule below for the date you of your assignment). You are expected to have read the text(s) carefully and be able to share the penetrating questions or issues you dealt with during your research or preparation. You will show your understanding of how you would apply your exegesis (see below re the exegesis paper) in a particular situation by treating the class as your intended audience. If you have a creative and challenging scenario (or biblical text) in mind and would prefer it over the one assigned to you, consult the instructor as soon as possible for permission. If you would like to use "smart" equipment for your presentation, let me know as soon as possible.

Before you present, take a few minutes to describe your role and any details about the intended audience that may be helpful to your presentation, e.g., particular place, time, gender mix, expected responses. Be as creative and imaginative as you wish without sacrificing critical, effective work.

After you present, (1) your classmates will complete presentation evaluation sheets, and (2) there will be a discussion focusing on the text and its application. The discussion will include constructive criticism in which all students are expected to take active part. N.B.: The critical responses of your peers will be considered in assessing their participation in the course. Likewise, your responses to others' analysis and critique will also be considered in evaluating your presentation.

N.B.: Every student will prepare 1–2 pages of notes for each presentation as if he or she were the presenter. I.e., everyone is expected to do all the preparatory work for every presentation (do thorough exegesis, plan the application, and be ready to respond to critique) with the exception of writing the exegesis paper. The instructor reserves the right to collect these unannounced.



As part of your preparation for the presentation you will submit an exegesis paper (1,600–2,500 words) of your text(s) at least 2 weeks before your presentation. If there are more than one passage, then choose one as your focus, using the other(s) as you see fit. In all cases discuss parallels and relevant passages elsewhere in the Bible. For ideas, look at some critical commentaries and academic journals, i.e., scholarly books and articles with lots of (foot)notes. If you need some tips for doing exegesis, see the Exegesis Guidelines page. You may find the Tips for writing papers helpful.

•   Include at least a historical-critical understanding of the text(s) and present possible meanings in it (them).

•   Include an analysis of the structure of the text(s).

•   The paper should represent original work (i.e., your own thoughts), not a mere digest of other people's opinions. Your own reading and re-reading of the relevant texts, as well as review of other materials, are fundamental to the task. I want to know what you discover in your engagement with the biblical text(s) whether or not you agree with the authors or the opinions presented in class, including mine.

N.B.: Focus on honing your ability (1) to argue for your opinions and conclusions persuasively and (2) to support them with evidence from texts (especially primary sources) and other relevant sources.

•   Your bibliography (N.B.: not works cited) must contain at least 8 sources used in your paper, including 4 periodical (journal) articles.

Electronic sources count only if you provide evidence that they are scholarly sources.

Use footnotes or endnotes to document your sources following the Chicago Manual of Style—for help: NoodleTools. Learn the automatic footnote (and endnote) function of your word processor.

N.B.: the word-count will not include footnotes and endnotes.

•   Follow all the instructions given on my Evaluation page under Written assignments.

You are strongly encouraged to make appointments for feedback on your progress.


Throughout the semester, you will be responsible for learning significant terms covered in our texts or in class (see the “terms” file on the R-drive). You will be responsible for the definitions and, when appropriate, significant biblical passages related to the terms. Use (1) the course texts (e.g., glossary, index), (2) the resources listed in "Resources to consider" below, or (3) any other appropriate sources of information. The terms may constitute a part of any quiz or exam.



There will be 2 quizzes (ca. 30 minutes) and a midterm exam (ca. 45 minutes). They will cover the materials in the course you will have learned by the time of the tests. There may be pop quizzes, the results of which will affect the evaluation of your participation. See my Evaluation page under Quizzes and examinations.


Grades will be assigned as fairly as possible. See my Evaluation page under Grades for more information. The final grade for the course will consist of the following:



Participation is a significant part of this course.

See my Evaluation page under Participation

for more information and instructions.

exegesis paper




midterm exam


discussion starter(s)


quiz #1 & 3



N.B.: If you have any questions about any assignment, please ask in class or make an appointment to see me.

N.B.: If you have any questions about any evaluation or how you are doing in the course, please make an appointment to see me.



You may earn extra credit any time during the semester.

•   Submit a paper consisting of 700–1,000 words relating something from popular culture (e.g., movie, play, TV show, book, any performance) to a particular biblical text or theme (consult the instructor).

•   The paper should be mostly critique (not mere summary or description).


N.B.: The instructor reserves the right to make the final determination concerning any extra credit. You can earn a maximum of 5% toward the final grade. You may write more than one, if you wish, but you won't receive more than 5% total in extra credit.


Required books

The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha (NRSV), 3rd ed. You may use another Bible, if you wish, but the New Oxford Annotated Bible (NOAB) will be the common text for class assignments and discussions. In all cases, you are encouraged to use other English translations (e.g., NIV) and Bibles in other languages in addition to the NRSV. The Tanakh is especially recommended for comparison of Old Testament passages.

Achtemeier, Paul. Inspiration and Authority: Nature and Function of Christian Scripture. Peabody: Hendrickson Publishers, 1999.

Brown, Michael J. What They Don't Tell You: A Survivor's Guide to Biblical Studies. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 2000.

Hayes, John H. and Carl R. Holladay. Biblical Exegesis. Atlanta: John Knox Press, 2007.


Recommended books (* = highly recommended)

Tanakh. Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society, 1985 (5748).

Aland, Kurt, ed. Synopsis of the four Gospels. New York: United Bible Societies, 1982. (also available in Greek-English version)

Anderson, Bernhard W. Understanding the Old Testament. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 1998.

* Brown, Raymond E. Biblical Exegesis and Church Doctrine. Wipf & Stock, 2002.

* _____. An Introduction to the New Testament. New York: Doubleday, 1997.

* _____. An Introduction to New Testament Christology. New York: Paulist Press, 1994.

* _____. Responses to 101 Questions on the Bible. New York: Paulist Press,1990.

* Meyer, Paul. The Word in This World. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 2004.

* Strunk, William, Jr., and E. B. White. The Elements of Style. New York: Macmillan Publishing, 1979. (See my Resources page under Miscellaneous for the first edition of Strunk.)


Resources to consider

See my Resources page for McGill, AV, and Web resources, esp. The NT Gateway.

R-drive: course folder and the “NaFiles” folder

Bible concordances (McGill library)

Ferguson, Duncan S. Bible Basics. Louisville: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1995.

Turner, Nicholas. The Handbook for Biblical Studies. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1982.


Keeping in touch

During the semester check your e-mail regularly for messages regarding course matters (e.g., changes in the syllabus). Visit and reload (refresh) this page for updates to the syllabus; see also my homepage for other information and resources related to the course. Please feel free to make an appointment any time about any course matters.


Tips from former students

For some practical advice from former students, see the tips page.


One last word . . .

Regardless of how demanding all of this is, I promise to be as fair as possible. I recognize that you will be very busy this semester pursuing various obligations and passions. I understand. I have my passions too, e.g., my family, music, philosophy, nature, mountain biking, fixing things, food. But I am also very passionate about education, both yours and mine—I mean not just the business of acquiring knowledge but more importantly the total development of honorable human beings. I do not require you to share my excitement about all the things we will cover, but I do expect you to do your best to complete the requirements for the course. To help you do that, I will make myself available outside the class time and the office hours. I will be glad to help you when you are struggling with an assignment. Or if you have any questions, concerns, complaints, and even compliments, I will do my best to take the time to listen and offer my response. Keep in mind that I am here to help you learn. So again, welcome to Religion 301: Applied Biblical Interpretation.

Course schedule TR 1400–1530     PH 110

REL 301

= required

+ = in the library (N.B.: Please do not check them out, so that others may read them in the library.)

bold = primary text(s) for presentation or class (discussion)

> = recommended / suggested

Week 1


Aug 26 T

Aug 28

General orientation: •What is the Bible? •Biblical theology & dogmatic theology (Gabler) •World-viewContext & perspective

Gabler: "On the Proper Distinction between Biblical and Dogmatic Theology and the Specific Objectives of Each" (Scottish Journal of Theology 33 [1980]: 133–58)

Yoram Hazony: "The God of Independent Minds" (WSJ, 24 Aug. 2012)

Brown: Prolegomena; ch. 1

Fisher: Effective Learning (pp. 3 & 6; also in Inquiry text)

Translation comparison

Christmas Quiz

Easter Quiz (N.B.: take this "quiz" before reading the following)

1 Cor 15.3–10

Mk 15.40–16.8

Mt 27.55–28.20

Lk 23.48–24.53

Jn 19.25–21.25

Acts 1.1–2.4

Gos Pet (N.B. Q10 on "Easter Quiz")

Memorize the books of the Protestant canon in order (learn correct spelling). [also: comparison chart; canons; some early NT canons]

Remember: bring your Qs & Cs to each class (see Participation).

Gabler: bring your Qs & Cs (esp. on the distinction between biblical theology & dogmatic theology)

Copy all relevant Web pages and resources to your hard disk or flash drive, etc. for easy access. Keep the copies updated.

>Brown, Responses, Q1–4: Translations of the Bible

>Bible in 50 words

>Bible Contradiction & Responses

>Do you know how to think? (a self-exam)

>Bible quiz

>Bible Hunt

>Optical Illusions



>Perception quiz

>Study Guide 1 (These may be helpful, but they may not always correspond with the assignments.)

Week 2

Sep 2 T

Sep 4

Bible, theology, interpretation, application: •The Bible ain't what it used to be. or How to read the Bible again. •Canon

Gabler: "On the Proper Distinction between Biblical and Dogmatic Theology and the Specific Objectives of Each" (Scottish Journal of Theology 33 [1980]: 133–58)
Hayes: ch. 1
(first 2 sections)

Brown: Prolegomena, ch. 1; Rule of Thumb 1–19
Gen 1–2 (esp. 2.4–25)

Review the books of the Protestant canon in order (learn correct spelling).
Reminder: bring your Qs & Cs to each class (see Participation)
Translation comparison

>Brown, Responses, Q5–10: Genuine and apocryphal books of the Bible; Q11–14: How to read the Bible

>Brooks & Collins: “Introduction” to Hebrew Bible or Old Testament

>Transmission errors


>Blogging the Bible (an interesting viewpoint that might resonate with your life)

>Study Guide 2

>Study Guide 3

Week 3

Sep 9 T

Sep 11

Bible, theology, interpretation, application: •The Bible ain't what it used to be: how to read the Bible again

•Discussion: Suchcicki; Thomas

Meyer: “Faith and History Revisited” (Princeton Seminary Bulletin 10 [1989]: 75–83)
Brown: Rule of Thumb 20–28; ch. 5
Gen 1–2 (esp. 2.4–25)
Hayes: ch. 1
Gen 1–2 (esp. 2.4–25)
Isa 7–8 (esp. 7.10–17)
Review the books of the Protestant canon in order (learn correct spelling).

>Brown, Responses, Q15–17: Church guidance; Q18–22: Why read the Bible
Redaction & hermeneutics (funny, interesting & instructive)
Study Guide 4

Week 4

Sep 16 T

Sep 18

•Discussion: Walter; Crider

Hayes: ch. 2: Textual Criticism

Translation comparison


Hayes: ch. 3: Historical Criticism

Isa 7–8 (esp. 7.10–17)


>Greek NT: 1st page



>Interpreting Ancient Manuscripts (very helpful)

>Transmission errors

>Brown, Responses, Q23–27: Is the Bible literally true; Q28–30: Biblical criticism

Week 5

Sep 23 T

Sep 25

Sep 25: Quiz 1

•Discussion: Halpin; Lemke

Hayes: ch. 4: Grammatical Criticism
Isa 7–8 (esp. 7.10–17)
Hayes: ch. 5: Literary Criticism

>Brown, Responses, Q31–33: Biblical fundamentalism; pp. 137–42; Q34–37: How literally true is the NT

Week 6

Sep 30 T

Oct 2

Sep 30: Quiz 1

Discussion: Schauf; Suchcicki

Hayes: ch. 6: Form Criticism


Hayes: ch. 7: Tradition Criticism

Lk 10.25–37: exegesis (use various criticisms)

Cotton Patch: Lk 10.25–37

>The Cotton Patch NT

>Reflections on the Cotton Patch Version

The "Parable of the Good Samaritan" with a humorous twist

>Brown, Responses, Q38–44: The Gospels; Q45–51 Jesus' words and deeds

Week 7

Oct 7 T

Oct 9

•Discussion: Thomas; Walter


Hayes: ch. 8: Redaction Criticism

Hayes: ch. 9: Structuralist Criticism

Lk 10.25–37: exegesis (use various criticisms)

Cotton Patch: Lk 10.25–37


>Redaction & hermeneutics (funny, interesting & instructive)

>The Cotton Patch NT

>The "Parable of the Good Samaritan" with a humorous twist


>Brown, Responses, Q52–53: Jesus' resurrection; Q54–60: Jesus' birth

>Brown: Intro to NT Christology, 162–70 (“The Reality of the Resurrection of Jesus”)

>Brown: Intro to NT, 817–830 (“The Historical Jesus”)

>Reflections on the Cotton Patch Version

Week 8

Oct 14 T

Oct 16

•Discussion: Crider; Halpin

Course syllabus (including Evaluation link; review requirements, expectations, and criteria for grading—ask Qs, if you have any)

Hayes: ch. 10: Canonical Criticism

Hayes: ch. 11: Exegesis with a Special Focus

>Brown, Responses, Q61–68: Mary (esp. of interest to Roman Catholics); Q69–76: Jesus' knowledge

Jn 1.1–18

Role: Church school teacher

Audience: 6th grade church school class during Advent examining the incarnation

Gen 38

Role: young adult group leader

Audience: young adult group studying biblical narratives with a focus on human ethics & God's will


Alternative #1:

Role: college chapel staff

Audience: college Bible study group trying to recover the relevance of OT texts


Alternative #2:

Role: Women's Bible study leader

Audience: Women's Bible study on the role of women in society & in God's plan for human history

Week 9


Oct 21 T

Oct 23

Oct 25–28


Oct 23: Midterm exam

Discussion: Crider (makeup for Oct. 14)new

Discussion: Lemke; Schauf

Is God ethical?

Variety of voices in the Bible

Where did Mary & Joseph originally live?

Hayes: ch. 12: Integrating Exegetical Procedures

Hayes: ch. 13: Fruits of exegesis

Gen 22.1–19

Role: pastor

Audience: adult church school class studying biblical narratives with a focus on human ethics & God's will

Audience: adult church group sharing grief experiences, focusing on God'w will & human ethics

Mt 1.18–2.23 & Lk 2.1–20

Role: youth group leader

Audience: sr. high students who are confused by the Christmas story

>Brown, Responses, Q77–78: Foundation of the church; Q79–85: The sacraments

Week 10


Oct 30 R

Nov 4

Oct 31: movie night with the Nas 7:48 PM-ish
Feel free to bring DVDs of movies you think your classmates should see. For directions click here.

Achtemeier: Intro; ch. 1

Josh 6.15–21

•Why so violent?

Role: military chaplain

Audience: soldiers in the midst of a bloody war; or Christian pacifists


Achtemeier: ch. 2

Gen 1

•Bible in our scientific world

Role: Christian educator

Audience: church youth group whose members are confused by what they're learning in their biology classes at school

Please Vote on Nov 4

Week 11


Nov 6 R

Nov 11

Presentation evaluation: be ready to offer each presenter good critique (focus is on the applied biblical interpretation evident in the presentations)

Achtemeier: ch. 3

Lk 15.11–32

•The parable of whom, for whom?

Role: youth group leader

Audience: jr. high students

Alternative: 1Th 4.13–18; 1Cor 15.50–52; Mt 16.27–28 (cf. Mk 9.1; Mk 13.24–30; Lk 9.27)

•Apocalypticism & eschatology

•Y2K has come & gone; were Jesus & Paul wrong

Role: missionary

Audience: skeptics who claim the Bible was wrong in its predictions

>Luke: pairs


Achtemeier: ch. 4

Mt 7.15–27; 25.31–46; James 2.8–26 (cf. Rom 2.13; 3.21–4.5; 10.9–13; Gal 2.16–21)

•Sola fide? (or "What you do is who you are?")

Presentation: Suchcicki

Role: Christian (traditionally Protestants) who claims that salvation depends on only faith (you must define what you mean by faith)

Audience: Christians (traditionally Roman Catholics or Baptists) who claim that salvation depends on what a person does

>Brown, Responses, Q93–96: Who celebrated the eucharist; Q97–100: Peter and the popes

Week 12


Nov 13 R

Nov 18

Presentation evaluation: be ready to offer each presenter good critique (focus is on the applied biblical interpretation evident in the presentations)

Achtemeier: ch. 5

Eccl 1.1–2.23

•Does life have any meaning?

Presentation: Thomas

Role: chaplain at a nursing home

Audience: elderly people whose lives are in their waning years


Achtemeier: ch. 6

Mk 5.21–43

Presentation: Walter

Role: pastor

Audience: adult church school class studying Gospel narratives

>Brown, Responses, Q101: How much has the church changed; 137–42 (esp. of interest to Roman Catholics)

Week 13


Nov 20 R

Nov 25

Nov 26–30


Achtemeier: ch. 7; epilogue
Pritchard, James, B., ed. The Ancient Near East: An Anthology of Texts and Pictures (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1958. Vol.1: 85–86)
Meyer: “Faith and History Revisited” (Princeton Seminary Bulletin 10 [1989]: 75–83)
Ex 1.15–2.10 (cf. Pritchard: vol.1: 85–86; also consider esp. Meyer, 78 & 80)
Presentation: Crider
Role: pastor
Audience: college students who have recently learned that biblical stories were not unique in the ancient world, but often followed certain patterns or borrowed from other traditions
Nov 25: Quiz 3
Gal 3.27–29
•Paul's gospel & ethnicism
Role: youth group leader
Audience: group members involved in either Neo-Nazi groups or the KKK

Week 14


Dec 2 T

Dec 4

St. Nicholaus

Job 7.11–21; 9.14–24; Job 19.23–27 (cf. Job 1–2; 42.7–17)
•Evil, suffering & theodicy
Presentation: Halpin
Role: pastoral counselor
Audience: people of any age who have suffered extraordinary tragedies (e.g., Holocaust, Columbine HS, 9-11, Hurricane Katrina)

Role: Bible study/prayer group leader
Audience: mixed group of adults (grieving & not grieving)
Genesis 2:4–17
Creatio ex nihilo?
Presentation: Lemke
Role: camp counselor (working at a camp where a literal interpretation of the Bible is taught)
Audience: 12–15-year-old campers, most of whom were raised in a Christian church and are familiar with popular Bible stories taught in church school

Dec 5: Last day for extra credit papers (

>O Little Town of . . . Nazareth?
Xmas Carol Quiz
Xmas Quiz

Dec 11 R




final presentation (and final thoughts)

Rom 8.14–25; Gal 4.1–7 (cf. Eph 1.3–14)
•Belonging to Christ & baptismal identity
Presentation: Schauf (Rom; Gal)
Role: director or chaplain of an orphanage
Audience: orphans of various ages who have either lost their parents through tragedy or were abandoned or given up by them
Gabler: "On the Proper Distinction between Biblical and Dogmatic Theology and the Specific Objectives of Each" (Scottish Journal of Theology 33 [1980]: 133–58)
2Sam 11.1–12.23 (cf. Ps 51)
Role: Chaplain of the US Congress
Audience: Bible study group of senators and representatives

Merry Christmas & Happy New Year!


exegesis guidelines


Na home

Without education we are in a horrible and deadly danger of taking educated people seriously. (G. K. Chesterton)

Health is merely the slowest possible rate at which one can die. (Anonymous)