101: final exam for spring 2014
The final exam will consist of 4 parts:
1) Terms (30%): identify 30 of 35 terms for which a brief description will be given
2) Bible content analysis (20%): identify 4 biblical passages and discuss themes & issues expressed in them
3) Short answer questions: 6 short answer questions (30%)
documentary hypothesis (= source hypothesis)
JEPD & their characteristics
exodus & wilderness
Mosaic covenant / tradition
settlement in Canaan (3 models / theories of settlement)
monarchy & United Monarchy
Davidic covenant / tradition
comparison of Isaiah of Jerusalem (8th cent.) & Jeremiah (7th cent.)
apocalyptic thought & literature (e.g., Dan & Rev)
2-document theory (= 2-source hypothesis)Farrer hypothesis
Lk-Acts’ salvation historySynoptics v. John
Gentile problem in early church
Christian freedom (esp. in Corinth & Galatia)
Pauline letters: undisputed (authentic) & disputed
relative chronology of significant characters & events (e.g., was Abraham before or after David?)
4) 2 essay questions from below (20%; be as detailed as possible, using biblical examples to illustrate your points whenever possible):
NB: the exact wording or content may differ a little on the actual exam.
NB: only 2 will be on the exam.
► Write an essay providing the historical-critical explanation of the process through which the books of the Torah (Pentateuch) were composed and brought together. In your answer show your understanding of the documentary hypothesis and the significant characteristics of the various sources (e.g., who, what, when, where, why, how).
► Describe and compare the two major theological traditions in ancient Israel. What are the features of each? How are they similar? How are they different? What sorts of problems arose as a result of the differences? Provide specific examples from the Bible (both OT & NT) passages we read or discussed.
► In what ways does an egalitarian ethos emerge in the controversy over monarchy, the prophets, the Gospels, Paul’s letters, and western civilization?
► Describe the Synoptic Problem. Also explain the three hypotheses covered in the class that try to address it. What are the strengths and weaknesses of each theory?
► Discuss the problems that arose in the earliest Christian communities as a result of the mission to the Gentiles, especially as they are portrayed in Acts, Romans, and Galatians. What were the controversies, decisions, and compromises?
See the R-drive file for other helpful resources (files).
In preparation you should review & master the following (also check out the R-drive ["Profnote" & "NaFiles" folders] for all the files that may be of help in preparation):
previous quizzes or exams (on the R-drive)
all the terms highlighted in the terms list (on the R-drive)
general content (including groups of books, e.g., Wisdom literature) & theology & approximate dates of the Bible books we covered in class (see intros in the Study Bible & Harris)
basic chronology of main people & events (see Harris for more info; see helpful review in NOAB: 526–33 ES [NB: these pages appear after the NT]):
1000 David’s United Monarchy
922 division of the kingdom
722 fall of Samaria (Israel) to Assyria
587 fall of Jerusalem to Babylon
332 Alexander the Great includes Palestine in his empire
167–164 Antiochus IV Epiphanes
164 Maccabean revolt
142–63 independent kingdom under Hasmonean dynasty
30–14 Augustus Caesar
4 b.c. Herod the Great dies (Jesus’ birth prior to this)
a.d. 26–36 Pontius Pilate procurator of Judea (Jesus’ crucifixion)
47–56 Paul’s missionary activity
64–65 Christians persecuted under Nero after Rome burns
66–73 Jewish revolt against Rome; Christians flee Jerusalem
70 Romans, under Vespasian, capture Jerusalem & destroy the Temple
90 Jamnia council (Jewish canon)
132–135 Jewish revolt against Rome (last time)
significant characters in the Bible covered in class or in Harris (e.g., Adam & Eve, Abraham & Sarah, significant kings [e.g., Saul, David, Solomon, Rehoboam, Jeroboam, Ahab, Manasseh], Elizabeth, Mary, Jesus, Peter, Paul)
Bible passages assigned in the “Project/text” column of the course schedule
other significant Bible passages or verses (esp. those covered in class or in Harris)
e.g.: “Now if you are unwilling to serve YHWH, choose this day whom you will serve, whether the gods your ancestors served in the region beyond the River of the gods of the Amorites in whose land you are living; but as for me and my household, we will serve YHWH.”
development of the Tetrateuch & Pentateuch (see ‘JEPD’ on R-drive; view it in “Print Layout” mode)
NB: YHWH & Elohim distinction is generally not as significant outside the Pentateuch
It was the Priestly writer (P) who contributed the basic structure of the Tetrateuch in the exilic or early post-exilic period. Available to him was the Old Epic tradition, which existed in 2 versions:
J (Yahwist; Judean)
E (Elohist; Ephraimitic)
composed in the south under the United Monarchy (c. 950)
composed in the north after the split of the kingdom (c. 850)
Reuel (Moses’ father, Ex 2.18)
Jethro (Moses’ father, Ex 3.1; 18.1)
YHWH (Yahweh; Jahweh): anthropomorphic imagery
’Elohim (in stories about pre-Mosaic period): reveals himself in dreams
Jerusalem (Zion: e.g., Ps 78.67–72)
interest in northern shrines (e.g., Bethel, Shechem)
southern heroes (e.g., Judah)
presence of northern heroes (e.g., Joseph, Rachel, Ephraim)
D (Deuteronomic / Deuteronomistic)
c. 650 & later
tradition best represented in Deut, reflecting literary style & theology prevalent at the time of Josiah’s reform (621)
emphasis on prophecy (Dt 13.1–5; 18.15–22)
c. 550 & later
literary corpus marked by style & cultic interests of the priestly circle of Jerusalem, which became prominent in the period after the fall of Jerusalem (587)
blessing as fruitfulness & multiplying
covenants with God that mark important moments
genealogies that establish connections between people and events
social & religious roles of priests
another look at the sources (from http://www.cs.umd.edu/~mvz/bible/doc-hyp.pdf)
stress on Judah
stress on northern Israel
stress on Judah
stress on central shrine
stresses the prophetic
stresses the cultic
stresses fidelity to Jerusalem
anthropomorphic speech about God
refined speech about God
majestic speech about God
speech recalling God's work
God walks and talks with us
God speaks in dreams
cultic approach to God
God is YHWH
God is Elohim (till Ex 3)
God is Elohim (till Ex 3)
God is YHWH
Sinai is “Horeb”
has genealogies and lists
has long sermons
Israel in Canaan (distinction & syncretism [from time of Judges])
sole allegiance to YHWH
transcends nature (beyond sexuality)
El &Asherah; Baal & Asherah/Anath/Astarte
participation in nature
not sexual (no consort)
sexual rites; fertility
divine power disclosed in history (nonrecurring, linear)
Exodus from Egypt = fundamental
divine power disclosed in nature (recurring, circular)
agricultural prosperity = fundamental
obedience to covenant (emphasis on ethics)
maintenance of natural order & harmony
magical control of gods for human welfare
desire for security in precarious environment
liberation from bondage
egalitarian ethos (prophetic condemnation of social injustice)
aristocratic maintenance of status quo
exodus à Tribal Confederacy est. in Shechem (Josh 24)
royal theology (2Sam 7; 1Sam 16.13)
multiple shrines (e.g., Bethel, Shechem)
Zion theology (Jerusalem is inviolable)
people (conditional covenant with Israel)
nation (unconditional covenant with David)
General contents of all the biblical books we covered so far
sources: Harris; introductions in the study Bible; R-drive files “prophets & psalms”:
below are some sample content summaries (highlighted material is especially important)
Gen 1-11 primeval history (Elohim)
1.1-2.4a P account of creation (from exilic time)
2.4b-25 J account of creation (from 10th cent.)
Was this ever meant to be an historical account?
Does P’s version function as a statement of faith? How so?
Compare J’s claim that all people came from one human couple with the Judean imperial program of the United Kingdom.
Gen 12-50 patriarchal history (El Shaddai)
12.1-25.18 Abraham cycle
25.19-36.43 Jacob cycle
37-50 Joseph Cycle
Are the patriarchs historical persons or eponyms?
Could the story of Simeon & Levi be the story about what the tribes of Simeon & Levi experienced?
Ex 1.1-15.21 exodus (YHWH)
Who went through the exodus? Who went down to Egypt? Who came out of Egypt?
What function does the event of exodus have as a root metaphor for all people under oppression? (NB: the book of Exodus combines the exodus tradition & the Sinai covenant tradition)
Role of YHWH?
Yahwism as an egalitarian ideology?
Ex 15.22–18.27 wilderness experience
Ex 19.1--Num 10.10 Sinai/Horeb
Ex 19.1–24.11 covenant
Ex 24.12–31.17 cultic instructions
Ex 31.18–34.35 golden calf & covenant renewal
Ex 35.1–40.38 execution of Ex 25–31
Lev 1–7 sacrifices
Lev 8–10 priests
Lev 11–15 clean & unclean
Lev 16 Day of Atonement
Lev 17–26 Holiness Code
Lev 27 vows
Num 1.1–10.10 prepare to depart
How can we explain that the historical credo in Dt 6 & 26 (= “Hexateuch in miniature”) does not mention Sinai?
How do the Ancient Near Eastern treaties (suzerainty treaty) help us understand the covenant of God with Israel (NB: components of the treaty)? (See Harris)
Num 10.11–36.12 wilderness
Dt–2Kgs Deuteronomistic History
Deuteronomistic theology (summary in Judg 2.6-3.6; 2Kgs 17.7–41)
all historical events governed by divine providence
Dt 31.1-34.12 from Moses to Joshua
Josh & Judg settlement
Which model do you think best explains the shape of the people of Israel in the Bible: conquest, infiltration or revolt?
Josh 24 Tribal Confederacy in Shechem
Who joins the Tribal Confederacy?
What is the basis of the covenant in this chapter?
1Sam 9.1-10.16; 11 pro-monarchic (“Saul tradition”)
1Sam 7.3-8.22; 10.17-27; 12 anti-monarchic (“Samuel tradition”)
What are the issues in this debate over establishing a kingship (see also Judg 8)?
2Sam 2 David anointed king of Judah
2Sam 5 David anointed king of all Israel; Jerusalem conquered
2Sam 6 Ark of the Covenant brought to Jerusalem
2Sam 7 Nathan’s oracle (Judean royal theology)
1) Israel as the source of blessing (Gen 12.1-3)
2) cosmopolitan outlook
3) hidden social critique (Gen 2.4b-25)?
1) YHWH = suzerain
2) YHWH gave an unconditional promise to David (royal theology in 2Sam 7)
3) YHWH chose Zion as his dwelling place
4) YHWH keeps Zion from enemies’ attack
Ps 82 as an imperial program?
2Sam 9-20; 1Kgs 1-2 Court History (Succession Narrative)
1Kgs 11 reason for split of united monarchy
1Kgs 12 secession of northern tribes (922)
2Kgs 17 fall of Samaria (722-21)
inseparably linked to the period of Israel’s nationhood (after the end of the tribal confederacy through the exile)
The following are major emphases of the individual prophetic books of the Twelve, given in the hope that we can begin to recognize the distinctive voice of each prophet.
1. Amos powerfully expressed the need for social justice, and announced the coming Day of Yahweh. (eighth century)
2. Hosea was the only native northern prophet; he had an unfaithful wife who was a living parable of Israel's unfaithfulness to God. (eighth century)
3. Micah was the Judean prophet who championed the cause of the rural underclasses over against the aristocracy of Jerusalem. (eighth century)
4. Zephaniah preached the coming Day of Yahweh. (seventh century)
5. Nahum condemned Nineveh, capital of the Assyrian Empire. (seventh century)
6. Habakkuk asked how Babylonia, an evil nation, could be used by God to punish his own people? (seventh century)
7. Obadiah condemned the Edomites for taking advantage of the plight of the Judeans. (sixth century)
8. Haggai urged the recently returned refugees to rebuild the Jerusalem temple. (sixth century)
9. Zechariah provided spiritual and moral support to the returned refugees in Jerusalem through visions. (sixth century)
10. Malachi used the disputation style to probe the spiritual commitment of the postexilic community. (fifth century)
11. Joel had a vision of a locust plague, which served as a sign of the coming Day of Yahweh. (fifth century)
12. Jonah tried to avoid his commission to preach repentance to the Assyrians, was swallowed by a fish, and ultimately but unhappily convinced Nineveh to repent. (fifth century?)
Amaziah 800–783 Joash 802–786
Uzziah 783–742 Jeroboam II 786–746 Amos c. 760–750
Jotham 742–735 Zechariah 746–745 Hosea c. 750–725
Shallum 745 Isaiah of Jerusalem c. 740–700
Ahaz 735–715 Pekah 736–732
Hezekiah 715–687 Hoshea 732–724 Micah c. 730
Amon 642–640 Zephaniah c. 640–622
Josiah 640–609 Nabopolassar 626–605 Jeremiah c. 627–562
Nahum c. 620
Jehoahaz 609 Nebuchadnezzar 605–562 Habakkuk c. 608–598
Zedekiah 597–587 Ezekiel c. 593–571
Gedaliah Amel–Marduk 562–560 Obadiah c. 587
Nabonidus 556–539 Second Isaiah c. 546–538
1–39 First Isaiah Isaiah of Jerusalem Assyrian 742–701
40–55 Deutero-Isaiah Isaiah of the Exile Babylonian Exile 546–538
56–66 Trito-Isaiah Isaiah of the Restoration Restoration of Judah 538–520
Sheshbazzar 538 Cyrus 550–530
Zerubbabel c. 520 Cambyses 530–522 Third Isaiah 537–520
Darius I 522–486 Haggai 520
Zechariah c. 520–518
Malachi c. 500–450
Xerxes 486–465 Joel c. 400–350
Ezra c. 450
Artaxerxes I 465–424 Jonah c. 400 (?)
Nehemiah c. 445 Second Zechariah c. 400
NB: the 3 great crises (Harris) & their relationship with prophecy
Prominent Heroes & Villains
David Solomon (1Kgs 11.1-13)
Solomon (1Kgs 3-10) Jeroboam I........................ Israel, 922-901
Hezekiah.......................... Judah, 715-687 Ahab (& Jezebel)............... Israel, 869-850
Josiah.............................. Judah, 640-609 Manasseh Judah, 687-642
Cyrus................................ Persia, 550-530 Tiglath Pileser III............ Assyria, 745-727
Sargon II......................... Assyria, 722-705
Nebuchadrezzar II..... Babylonia, 605-562
Know the basic characteristics of the following & their message (see Harris):
Isaiah of Jerusalem
categories of psalms (Harris)
see also R-drive file “biblical poetry” & “prophets & psalms”
practical & skeptical/speculative/reflective
universalism & individualism
challenge to traditional Israelite faith & worldview
human experience (cf divine revelation)
contrast with Deuteronomistic history
historical significance of Ezra & Nehemiah & the stage of Israelite faith they reflect (Judaism)
Apocalyptic thought & literature
Dan & Rev
characteristics of apocalyptic writing (Harris)
1Macc, Tobit, Bel
Alexander the Great & Hellenization; Seleucids & Ptolomies; Antiochus IV
Gospels: Synoptic Problem & Jn
Mk, Mt & Lk v Jn (see R-drive file & Harris)
two-source hypothesis (Mk & Qs as independent sources for Mt & Lk, written independently)
advantage: easier to imagine/claim; disadvantage: hypothetical source Q(uelle = source)
Griesbach hypothesis (Mt as source for Lk; both as sources for Mk)
advantage: no hypothetical source; disadvantage: harder to imagine/claim
Acts & Paul etc.
7 authentic (undisputed) letters
disputed/pseudonymous letters (how do we judge?)
issues in the Pauline churches (e.g., Jew-Gentile relations, faith & works, delay of parousia, “false” teachings)
Pastorals & catholic epistles & Revelation
How do all these reflect the early stages of the Christian religion? What developments can we see?
issues in the early church (e.g., institutionalization & organization of the church, role of women, delay of parousia, “false” teachings, persecution)
Geography: It would help to know the significant places listed below.
Sea of Galilee
Regions & natural features
Anatolia (Asia Minor)
Cities & Kingdoms/empires
All the tribes of Israel
NB: there's a catch with Levi (Levites)!
Questions you should be able to answer (Be as detailed as possible, using biblical examples to illustrate your points whenever possible.):
► Provide the historical-critical explanation of the process through which the books of the Torah (Pentateuch) were composed and brought together. In your answer show your understanding of the source hypothesis and the major characteristics of the various sources.
► Compare the distinctive features of the two accounts of creation recorded in Gen 1.1–2.25, commenting on the sources they represent. Also discuss themes or convictions common to both.
► What is the most significant event, or root experience, in the memory of the Israelites? Why? How does this experience influence the various economical, historical, literary, political, religious, theological developments or issues in the Hebrew Bible?
► Discuss the developments from the Tribal Confederacy to the divided kingdom, describing the main stages of development, as well as identifying the main figures in the biblical narrative and the theological and historical issues or themes that we may discern within the developments.
► What are the three models/theories proposed for understanding the settlement of the Israelites in Canaan? Describe each theory and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of each view.
► Compare the perspectives embodied in the Deuteronomistic History and the Chronicler’s History. Which books does each include? List as many characteristic features of each as you can. What historical periods are covered in the literature? What historical situation(s) does the composition of each reflect? Why were they written?
► Discuss the rise of monarchy in ancient Israel.
► Describe and compare the two major theological traditions in ancient Israel. What are the features of each? How are they similar? How are they different? What sorts of problems arose as a result of the differences?
► What is the nature and function of Hebrew prophecy? In answering this, refer to prophets from the Bible to show what you mean and provide specific biblical passages (references).
► What are some general characteristics of the Psalms. Describe three types or categories of psalms.
► What are some significant features of wisdom literature in general? What types of wisdom literature are there, what distinguishes them, and which books of the Hebrew Bible belong to them?
► In what ways does the theme of egalitarian ethos emerge in the Hebrew Bible?
► Compare Daniel and Revelation. What kind of literature are they? What common elements do they share? What kind of worldview does each espouse, especially with respect to their respective historical context?
► Show your understanding of the contrast between the Synoptics and John.
► In the historical understanding of the Bible, what is meant by the claim that the time of the literature is not the time of the tradition?
For more review, see the reading guides & the review Qs in Harris.