Style Sheet for History Courses

Compiled by Russell E. Martin

 

While most students are taught the citation conventions for the Modern Language Association (MLA), it is in fact not appropriate to use these conventions in college-level history papers. None of the major historical journals use it, nor are PhD dissertations or monographic works accepted with MLA citations. Rather, the historical profession employs the conventions of The Chicago Manual of Style (CMS)--sometimes called "Taurabian," after the name of a popular reference guidebook largely based on CMS. In all history courses, students are required to adopt the CMS, regardless of what citation method they may have used in their freshman writing courses. This is, after all, a history course; and part of the mission of any college history course is to impart some notion of the way modern historical research is done and presented. Surely, methods of citation are fundamental to this objective.

 

Below I present the CMS conventions for some of the most common citation situations you might encounter. It is not an exhaustive list of scenarios, but may be sufficient for most students' papers. I have arranged the entries so as to include a citation as it would appear both in a foot- or endnote, and in the bibliography. (And please remember--the inclusion of a bibliography, alphabetized by the last name of the author [or in cases where there is no author or editor or compiler, by title] is mandatory!) For circumstances not covered by the following, see The Chicago Manual of Style, 14th edition, at McGill Library.

 

Whether one uses footnotes or endnotes is up to the discretion of the student (though I prefer endnotes). Students should use Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3,) for their notes, numbering them consecutively throughout the entire paper. The numeral for the note should be superscript, e.g.: 1. You can generate the footnote or endnote automatically in most word-processing programs (in MSWord from the "Insert" menu, highlighting "footnote"). Please take careful note of the different ways notes and bibliographical entries are indented!

 

Books:

 

One author

 

In a note:

1Nancy Shields Kollmann, Kinship and Politics: The Making of the Muscovite Political System, 1345-1547 (Stanford: Standford University Press, 1986), 27-31.

 

In the bibliography:

Kollmann, Nancy Shields. Kinship and Politics: The Making of the Muscovite Political System, 1345-1547. Stanford: Standford University Press, 1986.

 

Two authors

 

In a note:

2Robert Payne and Nikita Romanoff, Ivan the Terrible (New York: Crowley, 1975), 41.

 

In the bibliography:

Payne, Robert, and Nikita Romanoff. Ivan the Terrible. New York: Crowley, 1975.

 

Editor or translator, as author

 

In a note:

3Carolyn Johnston Pouncy, ed., and trans., The Domostroi: Rules for Russian Households in the Time of Ivan the Terrible (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1994), 44-71.

 

In the bibliography:

Pouncy, Carolyn Johnston, ed., and trans. ., The Domostroi: Rules for Russian Households in the Time of Ivan the Terrible. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1994.

 

Editor or translator with an author

 

In a note:

4S. F. Platonov, The Times of Troubles, trans. John T. Alexander (Lawrence, Kansas: University Pressof Kansas, 1987), 99-101.

 

In the bibliography:

Platonov, S. F. The Times of Troubles. Trans. John T. Alexander. Lawrence, Kansas: University Pressof Kansas, 1987.

 

Chapter in a multiauthor collection

 

In a note:

5Russell E. Martin, "Royal Weddings and Crimean Diplomacy: New Sources on Muscovite Chancellery Practice during the Reign of Vasilii III," in Rhetoric of the Medieval Slavic World, eds. Nancy Shields Kollmann, Donald Ostrowski, Andrei Pliguzov, Daniel Rowland (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Ukrainian Institute, 1997), 393, 406, 409-19.

 

In the bibliography:

Martin, Russell E. "Royal Weddings and Crimean Diplomacy: New Sources on Muscovite Chancellery Practice during the Reign of Vasilii III." In Rhetoric of the Medieval Slavic World. Eds. Nancy Shields Kollmann, Donald Ostrowski, Andrei Pliguzov, Daniel Rowland. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Ukrainian Institute, 1997.

 

Subsequent editions

 

In a note:

6Nicholas V. Riasanovsky, A History of Russia, 5th ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), 21, 55, 71, 81, 84-88, 90.

 

In the bibliography:

Riasanovsky, Nicholas V. A History of Russia. 5th ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

 

Multivolume work

 

In a note:

7Michael T. Florinsky, Russia: A History and an Interpretation, 2nd ed. (New York: Macmillan, 1953), 1:21.

 

In a bibliography:

Florinsky, Michael T. Russia: A History and an Interpretation. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. New York: Macmillan, 1953.

 

Multivolume work: citing the work in its entirety:

 

In a note:

8Paul Miliukov, Russian Culture, ed. Michael Karpovich, 3 vols. (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1942).

 

In the bibliography:

Paul Miliukov, Russian Culture. Ed. Michael Karpovich. 3 Vols. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1942.

 

Periodicals:

 

Journal articles

 

In a note:

8Christine Ruane, "The Vestal Virgins of St. Petersburg: Schoolteachers and the 1897 Marriage Ban," The Russian Review 50, no. 2 (April, 1991): 165, 170.

 

 

In the bibliography:

Ruane, Christine. "The Vestal Virgins of St. Petersburg: Schoolteachers and the 1897 Marriage Ban." The Russian Review 50, no. 2 (April, 1991): 163-92.

[NB: the page numbers for the entire article are included in the bibliographical cite.]

 

 

Magazine Articles

 

In a note:

8John Smith, "What I like about Russia," Life, April 1963, 21, 23-24.

 

In the bibliography:

Smith, John. "What I like about Russia." Life, April 1963, 20-29.

 

 

Newspapers articles

 

8Editorial, New York Times, 26 April 1963.

8John Smith, "Why I Changed My Mind About Russia," New York Times, 29 April 1989.

 

In the bibliography:

[CMS does not require that newspaper articles be included in bibliographies, but I do. You should still adopt the CMS conventions for these cases, which is:]

New York Times, 26 April 1963.

New York Times, 29 April 1989.

 

[NB: Note that the article "The" is removed from all newspaper titles, as a rule.]

 

 

WWW Sites:

 

There have yet to be established any clear and universal guidelines for internet citations, but the explosion of websites, some of them quite scholarly, calls for some rules on the use of these resources in student papers. I have adopted the standards used in Mark Hellstern, Gregory M. Scott, and Stephen M. Garrison, The History Student Writer's Manual (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1998).

 

According to this text (pp. 105-106):

"Place the following information in this order, separating most of the elements with periods: name of author (if known), reversed [in bibliographies]; title of document (in quotation marks); edition, revision, or version information; date of document; site address, starting on the next line and enclsed in v-brackets (< and >), followed by the date upon which you last accessed the cite (in parentheses).

 

In a note:

9Fr. Sergei Russkii, "Celebration of the 400th Anniversary of the Pochaev Icon of the Mother of God," 20 June 1997.

<http://www.synod.com/news/rocor/index.html> (20 April 1998).

 

[While this citation and web page are authentic and worth visiting, I have added an author and date for the article which do not appear on the cite in question.]

 

Russkii, Fr. Sergei. "Celebration of the 400th Anniversary of the Pochaev Icon of the Mother of God." 20 June 1997.

<http://www.synod.com/news/rocor/index.html> (20 April 1998).