Guided Reading for The Western Traditions.
Find the answer to each of these questions as it is given in the textbook before moving on to the next question.
Some answers, drawn from the textbook alone, will be rather simplistic. They can, and should, be elaborated upon as your knowledge of the subject grows.
It is part of the Guided Reading assignments that student should ASK as well as answer questions.
Pages 278 – 291:
The symbol (*) after a question indicates that these might be used for longer essays in your quizzes.
- What is the ulama?
- What is the "first and most important religious science" for Islam?
- What does the Qur’an place next in importance to the worship of God?
- What does the Qur’an forbid as a means of increasing one’s wealth?
- What is the sunnah?
- What is hadith?
- Of what does a hadith consist?
- How many canonical (that is, official and closed) collections of hadith are there? Name the oldest two.
- What did the term shari‘ah originally signify? What does it signify now?
- How many sources of Islamic law are there? What are they?
- What do the terms ijtihad and ijma signify?
- On what did Muhammad ibn Idris al-Shafi'i base his legal system and on what did it depend?
- What influence does Islamic theology reflect in the areas of questions of the existence of God, creation, and the problem of evil?
- What was Bayt al-Hikmah?
- How did the universe come into being according to Abu Bakr Zakariyah al-Razi?
- What is God according to Anu Nasr al-Farabi?
- Who was "Avicenna"?
- What is a mujaddid? Who was said to be the mujaddid of the sixth Islamic century?
- How could certain knowledge be attained according to al-Ghazali?
- Who was the greatest Muslim commentator on Aristotle?
- What was Ibn Khaldun the first to write?
- What does the term imam mean for Sunni and Shi’i Muslims respectively?
- What is Ashura?
- What does it mean to say that the Shi’i twelfth imam has gone into "the greater occultation?"
- Who is the Agha Khan?
- What are hadith qudsi?
- What is the Prophet’s mi‘raj? To whom and for what has it been a guide?
- Who was Rabiy‘ah al-‘Adawiyah?
- What was Rabi‘ah perhaps the first to introduce into Islamic mysticism?
- What did the mystic al-Hallaj preach, as expressed in the verses quoted?
- Who was the most important Sufi master of the thirteenth century?
- What did Ibn 'Arabi believe about all religions?
- What is the Mathnavi?
- What is a Shaykh?
- To whom does a Sufi chain of initiation go back?
- In what way do the shayks of Sufi orders resemble Catholics saints? In what way are they unlike them?
- What are the two practices said to be particularly characteristic of Sufi devotional practice?
- Why are the “whirling dervishes” called the “Mevlevi” order?
- What did Sufism provide for women? Why was this?