Guided Reading for The Western Traditions.

Find the answer to each of these questions as it is given in the textbook before moving on to the next question. Some answers, drawn from the textbook alone, will be rather simplistic. They can, and should, be elaborated upon as your knowledge of the subject grows. It is part of the Guided Reading assignments that student should ASK as well as answer questions.

Pages 204 – 227:

The symbol (*) after a question indicates that these might be used for longer essays in your quizzes.

  1. What is reflected in today’s use of traditional gowns in academic processions?
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  3. When did the Roman Emperor close the Platonic Academy in Athens?
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  5. Who expanded Augustine’s doctrine of scripture as the source of authority?
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  7. Who is supposed to have said ‘I believe so that I may understand?’ (Credo ut intelligam)
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  9. Why is Anselm’s notion of sin and punishment said to be ‘juridical?’
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  11. How did Aristotle’s thought reach Western Europe?
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  13. Who was the greatest of the Aristotelian scholastics?
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  15. What were the ‘five ways’ of Thomas Aquinas? (*)
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  17. What is Thomism?
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  19. What is ‘mysticism’ in this context? (*)
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  21. Name three male mediaeval mystics.
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  23. Name three female mediaeval mystics.
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  25. What happened within Christianity just as it was poised for global expansion? (*)
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  27. Who were Wyclif and Hus and what did they both want?
  28.  

  29. What were indulgences?
  30.  

  31. What and when was the diet of Worms?
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  33. What did Luther argue?
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  35. What specific technology contributed to the Protestant reformation? (*)
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  37. What did Luther take as authoritative? What is a consequence of this?
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  39. What is illustrated by the debate between Luther and Zwingli over the interpretation of the Eucharist?
  40.  

  41. By what was the Reformation marked?
  42.  

  43. What are the three main ‘establishments’ of the sixteenth-century reformation? (*)
  44.  

  45. Where did Lutheran politcal leadership flourish?
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  47. What was the difference between the Reformation in Germany and in Britain?
  48.  

  49. Who was (Thomas) Cranmer?
  50.  

  51. How is the Church of England known in the U.S.?
  52.  

  53. Who was the Reformation’s dominant intellectual leader?
  54.  

  55. What name is often used to refer to the Calvinist Churches?
  56.  

  57. What term is used to refer to the Reformed Church in England and Scotland? What does this mean?
  58.  

  59. In what Asian country did the Reformed Church become a sizable minority (about one third of the population)?
  60.  

  61. What was the Anabaptist attitude to political institutions and structures?
  62.  

  63. Who was Menno Simmons?
  64.  

  65. What branch of the Mennonites prefer traditional modes of dress and conduct?
  66.  

  67. What is unusual about Unitarian Christians?
  68.  

  69. Whose poetry provides well-known literary examples of the Puritan ideal?
  70.  

  71. What does Max Weber explore in The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism?
  72.  

  73. When and over what did the Puritans and British Presbyterians find themselves in substantial agreement?
  74.  

  75. To whom does the Congregationalist tradition accord the ultimate authority to determine theological and institutional affairs? (*)
  76.  

  77. Where was the stronhold of Congregationalists?
  78.  

  79. Which two notable American Universities were founded by Congregationalists?
  80.  

  81. What is the difference between ‘General’ and ‘Particular’ Baptists?
  82.  

  83. What name is more commonly used for the ‘Friends of the Truth,’ who now call themselves the Religious Society of Friends?
  84.  

  85. What is the shared principle of the Congregationalists, Baptists, and Quakers? (*)
  86.  

  87. With what were Pietists dissatisfied? What did they seek?
  88.  

  89. Why were the followers of John Wesley called ‘Methodists?’
  90.  

  91. What and when was the ‘Great Awakening?’ What is its connection with Methodism?
  92.  

  93. What was the largest Protestant denomination in the American Midwest in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries?
  94.  

  95. What is ‘glossolalia?’ How is it described in the Book of Acts? (*)
  96.  

  97. What is the ‘Counter-Reformation?’
  98.  

  99. When and where did the Council of Trent meet?
  100.  

  101. What did the Council of Trent reaffirm and reiterate?
  102.  

  103. What is the doctrine known as transubstantiation?
  104.  

  105. What is the origin of the phrase ‘hocus-pocus?’
  106.  

  107. Who was Iñigo Lopez (Ignatius Loyola)?
  108.  

  109. When was the Jesuit order approved by the Pope?
  110.  

  111. Who are the Ursulines?
  112.  

  113. Who were Francis Xavier and Robert De Nobili? (*)
  114.  

  115. What did Alessandro Valignano stipulate regarding Japanese etiquette and customs?
  116.  

  117. What happened to the Christian missionaries in Japan in 1614?
  118.  

  119. What were the three waves of Christian mission to China up to the sixteenth century?
  120.  

  121. To what post was the Jesuit Adam Schall von Bell promoted in 1645?
  122.  

  123. What three intellectual issues concerned Catholic Christianity in China at this time?
  124.  

  125. What gains had Christianity made in Asia three centuries after the voyages of Vasco da Gama?
  126.  

  127. What is one possible explanation of the peaceful reception of Cortés by the Aztec ruler, Moctezuma II?
  128.  

  129. Who was Bernardino de Sahagún?
  130.  

  131. To whom did Bartolemé de Las Casas deny absolution?
  132.  

  133. Did the Spanish and Portuguese conquest of Latin America result in a total displacement of native religious traditions? (*)
  134.  

  135. Who is the Virgin of Guadalupe?
  136.  

  137. What was marked by the encounter of Russian Orthodox and Spanish Catholics in California in the nineteenth century?
  138.  

  139. What does the ecclesiastical hierarchy of the Catholic Church in North American to some extent mirror?

 

Additional notes: