Guided Reading for The Western Traditions.
Find the answer to each of these questions as it is given in the textbook before moving on to the next question.
Some answers, drawn from the textbook alone, will be rather simplistic. They can, and should, be elaborated upon as your knowledge of the subject grows.
It is part of the Guided Reading assignments that student should ASK as well as answer questions.
Pages 185 – 204:
The symbol (*) after a question indicates that these might be used for longer essays in your quizzes.
- What produced the Nestorian churches?
- What was Nestorius’ and the Antiochenes attitude to the description of Mary as "mother of God?"
- What does Monophysite actually mean?
- When was the council of Chalcedon?
- What were the three major urban centers of Christian controversy in the 5th and 6th centuries?
- What were the three national churches that went their separate ways from Constantinople during the reign of Justinian?
- At what formulation did the Council of Chalcedon arrive in response to the Monophysite challenge?
- What was the difference between the Latin West and the Greek East during the 7th and 8th centuries?
- What (and when) were the Hesychasts?
- Why might paradoxical language such as "He is being and not being," etc., be appealing to religious thought?
- For what is the name Eastern Orthodox used?
- Name the groups of predominantly Orthodox Slavs
- Name the groups of predominantly Catholic Slavs.
- Into what three pre-existing groups did Yugoslavia divide in the early 1990s.
- What is the significance of the Latin word "filioque?" (*)
- What lay behind the "theological niceties" over which the Roman and Byzantine Churches argued?
- What are the Eastern-rite Catholic ("Uniate") Churches and what was significantly retained by them?
- Who are Maronite Christians?
- When and why did the Bishops of Rome claim primacy over all other Bishops?
- Who was Aurelius Augustine?
- What was the pattern that Augustine set for mediaeval Christian thought?
- What did Pelagius understand that Augustine criticized?
- What was the distinction between ‘religious’ and ‘secular’ clergy?
- What do the Benedictine monks consider to be a vice that should be cut off from the monastery?
- As what did the mediaeval monasteries play a crucial role?
- For what did the mediaeval monasteries attract criticism?
- How did the Cluniac order serve? Is this unusual?
- To what order of monks do the Trappists belong?
- Which order of monks helped to found the Knights Templar and the Knights of St. John?
- What is a mendicant order?
- The Poor Clares are an order of Nuns attached to which order of monks?
- To what order did Thomas Aquinas belong?
- What was true of ecclesiastical appointments (Church positions) in the tenth century?
- When did the Arab Muslims conquer Jerusalem?
- When did the Muslim Seljuq (or Seljuk) Turks capture Jerusalem?
- When did the Crusaders recapture Jerusalem?
- When were the Crusaders driven out of Jerusalem by Salah al-Din?
- How are the Saints thought to be powerful allies in one’s quest for spiritual benefit?
- What in some places survives in the traditions of particular saints?
- What precisely is a rosary?
- When and by which Pope was the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception defined as Dogma?
- What does the term ‘angel’ mean in the Biblical tradition?
- What do the terms diablos, Satan, Ba’al-zabul, and Ba’al-zabub actually mean?
- What proportion of the European Population was wiped out by the Black Death?
- What is the distinction between a mortal and a venial sin and from where does it come?
- What was the Malleus Maleficorum?