PRACTICAL LOGIC (Currently under constructionthis webpage is NOT complete or accurate. Students should not rely on it.
Bryan Rennie
GENERAL NOTES ON THIS CLASS
THE SET TEXTS
TAR = The Art of Reasoning, by David Kelley (4th edition).
ISBN: 9780393930788
Etext: ISBN: 9780393521573
COURSE OBJECTIVES
This course is an introduction to the basics of logic as an academic discipline. We will consider
what logic is. It is the study of the distinction between valid and invalid reasoning. Having
established our working attitude to logic we will investigate the basic terms, forms, types, and
style of argument and the uses of language in argument. To that end the basic vocabulary of logic
and argument must be learned.
Our most extensive analysis will be of deductive logic, that is to say, arguments which produce
logically necessary conclusions once their premises are accepted. The standard forms of such
arguments will be analyzed, and their accompanying fallacies noted. The symbol systems used to
express and analyze these forms will be practiced.
The overall objective of this is twofold: first, it will inform students of the precise and formal
nature of logical proof (and its relative rarity); second, exposure to and practice with arguments
and their identification as valid or invalid should greatly sharpen the students' natural skill at
validating arguments and constructing their own valid arguments. This last is in many ways the
final objective of this course.
So the course objectives can be stated to be:
 To learn what an argument is. What components does it contain, what assumptions does it make?
 To learn what makes a good argument. Why does a given conclusion follow from certain assumptions?
 To learn what makes a bad argument. Why are certain conclusions not entailed by certain
propositions?
COURSE REQUIREMENTS
Attendance
Since discussion is required to ensure that each point is fully understood and absorbed attendance is crucial. Missed classes will be penalized.
Learning good logic skills is like learning both language and manual
skillthey require practice, both physical and mental. To that end all students will be required to
answer questions, solve problems, and do exercises from the textbook in
class. Note that these exercises are not graded. All you need to do is to demonstrate to the
instructor and to the class that you have made an effort to complete them. It is your
responsibility to raise questions about points which you have not understood. This is your
opportunity to seek clarification on difficult passages. You are NOT automatically expected to
fully understand everything you read.
IF STUDENTS DO NOT MAKE AN EFFORT TO PERFORM THESE EXERCISES
POINTS WILL BE SUBTRACTED FROM THEIR TOTAL.
Readings
The assigned reading and schedule of classes is a guideline designed to cover the entire textbook in the span of the semester. Readings and assignments may be changed according to student performance.
Homework
There will be a certain amount of reading homework after most classes to ensure a constant
and ongoing effort to master each section before moving on to the next. This homework will not
be handed in and will not be graded as such. It is for your own good rather than for the grading
process. However, questions will be asked about the homework at the start of each class, and if it
is apparent that you have not done it points will be subtracted. Time will be allowed
in class to attempt the exercises but they must be studied beforehand as homework.
GRADING
Grading will be done on a points system up to a maximum of 400 total possible
points:

Quizzes (7 @ 30 points) These quizzes are the most important element
of the course and are meant to ensure steady effort and ongoing understanding.
WARNING: Failure to score a passing grade on any quiz will result in the
loss of all point for that quiz. 210 points = c.52%.
 Computer exercises. Although these exercises will not be graded for
performance 100 points will be given for simply completing them. Up to one
quarter of your total grade points can be lost by not doing the required exercises.
100 points = 25%
 Final examination This will review the whole course so the start is not forgotten at the end. WARNING: Failure to pass the final is failure to pass the course. 90 points = c.23%
The written quizzes will take a form similar (but not identical) to these
sample quizzes. (WARNING: As of August 2016 these quizzes have not been adapted to the new Fall course.)
SAMPLE QUIZ QUESTIONS
The first two quizzes are correct for Fall 2016.
(This quiz will be on TAR Chapters One through Three)

For each of the given pairs of concepts, first determine which is the genus, which the species; and then name two other species of the same genus. Eg. HUMAN, ANIMAL; BASEBALL, SPORT.

Arrange the given lists in terms of order of increasing abstractness. Eg. Telephone, iPhone, cellphone, communication device.

Fill in the blanks indicated by XXX in the given classification diagram(s).

For each proposed definition, identify the genus (if it has one) and the differentia. Eg. A bargain is an opportunity to buy something at an unusually low price.

Identify the rule violated by each of the given definitions. If the definition is too broad or too narrow, find a counterexample. Eg. An antidote is a substance that counteracts snakebite.

Arrange the following concepts in a classification diagram, showing the species–genus relationships. Then define each concept.
Eg. TABLE, BED, FURNITURE, DESK, CHAIR.

For each of the given pairs of sentences, determine whether or not the sentences express the same proposition.

In each of the given examples, identify the connective and the propositions it connects. Then determine whether those component propositions are asserted (a) or unasserted (u). Eg. The paintings were interspersed with the drawings. The painting were among the drawings.

Identify the relative clause in each sentence below, and determine whether it is restrictive or non restrictive. Eg. We are looking for a person who was last seen wearibg a Cleveland Indians baseball cap.
 For each of the following sentences, identify the propositions it asserts (a) and those it does not assert (u). Eg. He is convinced that two plus two equals four.
(This quiz will be on TAR Chapters Four and Five)
 For the following paragraphs, determine whether it contains an argument. If so, identify the premises and the conclusion.
Eg. In an experiment involving twins raised in different families, psychologists found that the children had significantly similar rates of depression. This indicates that depression is more strongly affected by one’s genetics than by one’s environment.
 For the following arguments, you will be given the structure of the diagram; fill in the numbers at the appropriate places.
Eg. (1) I shouldn’t go home this weekend not only because (2) I have too much studying to do, but also (3) because I can’t afford the trip.
 In the following arguments, identify the conclusion. Then determine whether the premises are dependent or in dependent.
Eg. To be a lawyer, you need to be good at keeping track of details, and Lenny is terrible at that, so he shouldn’t go into law.
 Diagram the following arguments.
Eg. I don’t think it would be a good idea to take the American Revolution course this term, because it conflicts with a course I need for my major, and my schedule would have more balance if I took a science course instead.
 Each pair of arguments that follow has the same conclusion. Determine which one has the greater logical strength. Remember that your assessment should depend not on whether you agree with the premises or the conclusion but on whether the relationship between the premises and the conclusion is strong. Eg.
a. Gelato is a better product than ice cream because it’s pop u lar with young, progressive people who are concerned about politics and the arts.
b. Gelato is a better product than ice cream because it has fewer calories, less fat, and a richer taste.
 Determine whether each of the following arguments is inductive or deductive. If it is deductive, is it valid or invalid?
Eg. No Greek philosopher taught in a university, but some Greek philosophers were great thinkers. Therefore, some great thinkers have not taught in a university.
 Identify the implicit premise(s) in each of the following arguments.
Eg. The traditional wax record, played on topoftheline equipment, can reproduce the spatial features of music such as the positions of the instruments in an orchestra. So in that respect it is superior to most compact disc recordings.
 Distill and diagram the following arguments—Eg. a scene from “The ‘Gloria Scott ’ ” by Arthur Conan Doyle:
“Come now, Mr. Holmes,” said he, laughing good humoredly. “I’m an excellent subject, if you can deduce anything from me.”
“I fear there is not very much,” I answered; “I might suggest that you have gone about in fear of some personal attack within the last twelvemonth.”
The laugh faded from his lips, and he stared at me in great surprise.
“Well, that’s true enough,” said he, . . . “though I have no idea how you
know it.”
“You have a very handsome stick,” I answered. “By the inscription I observed that you had not had it more than a year. But you have taken some pains to bore the head of it and pour melted lead into the hole so as to make it a formidable weapon. I argued that you would not take such precautions unless you had some danger to fear.”
 Identify which of the fallacies discussed in this section—subjectivism, appeal to majority, appeal to emotion, or appeal to force—is committed in the statement(s) below.
Eg. I think you will find that this merger is the best idea for our company, especially because disagreement may indicate that this company is not the right place for you.
 Identify which of the fallacies discussed in this section— appeal to authority or ad hominem— is committed in the each of statements below.
Eg. How can you say that animals have rights and should not be killed, when you eat meat?
 Identify which of the fallacies discussed in this section— false alternative, post hoc, hasty generalization, composition, division— is committed in the statements below.
Eg. It’s good to put water in your body, so it must be good to put water in your lungs.
 Each of the following arguments commits one or more of the fallacies of logical structure discussed in this section; identify them.
Eg. Mary says she loves me. I don’t know whether to believe her or not, but I guess I do, because I don’t think she would lie to someone she loves about something that important.
The following quizzes are NOT yet accurate or in the right order.
(This quiz will be on TAR Chapters Six and Seven)
 Arrange the following groups of terms in order of increasing intension. (Egs. TAR 89)
 Define the following terms by example/by genus and difference. (Egs. TAR 91. 98).

Name the form of the given propositions. Give both the name (eg. universal affirmative) and letter (eg. "A") identification.

Identify the subject and predicate terms in the following propositions. Are they distributed or undistributed. (egs.)
 Some television presenters are not responsible citizens.
 No poets are aggressive.
The following material will be covered in class immediately before the quiz.

Draw the traditional/Aristotelian square of oppositions.
 What immediate inferences can be made from the following propositions? (Assuming these propositions to be true.) (egs.)
 All successful business executives are intelligent people.
 No college professors are entertaining lecturers.
 Define the following immediate inferences (egs.):
 conversion
 obversion
 contraposition

Given a certain proposition determine whether following propositions are its
converse/obverse/contrapositive/subalternate. If the first given proposition
is true, are the following propositions true? That is to say, are these valid
immediate inferences?

Given a sequence of immediate inferences which are valid by Aristotelian logic, identify where an existential fallacy occurs.
(TAR Chapters Eight and Nine)
 Express the given propositions as equations (eg. SP = 0, etc.) and as Venn diagrams for propositions.
 Rewrite the given arguments in standard form, indicating their mood and figure.
 No motorcycles are safe forms of transport, so, since some police
vehicles are motorcycles, some safe forms of transport are not police
vehicles.
 All proteins are organic compounds, whence all enzymes are proteins, as all enzymes are organic compounds.
[The four figures are: 1st  (MP\SM), 2nd  (PM SM), 3rd  (MP
MS), 4th  (PM/MS). You might also remember: maim, Imam, mime, ammo]
 Attempt to refute the given arguments by constructing logical analogies, that is,
arguments of the same form which are more obviously fallacious.
 Use a Venn diagram to test the validity of the given arguments. Write
out the argument using S, P, and M, both in standard form (No S is P
etc.) and in logical notation (SP = 0 etc.)
 Fill in the blanks in the Six Rules and Fallacies for categorical syllogisms.
 Name the fallacies committed or the rules broken by syllogisms of the given forms.
 Name the fallacies committed or the rules broken by the given syllogisms.
 Some carbon compounds are not precious stones.
 Some carbon compounds are diamonds.
 Therefore some diamonds are not precious stones.
 All people who are most hungry are people who eat most.
 All people who eat least are people who are hungry.
 Therefore all people who eat least are people who eat most.
 Answer the given question(s) with reference to the six rules. Explain how you reach your conclusion. For example:
 In what figure or figures, if any, can a valid standardform
categorical syllogism have two particular premises?
 In what figure or figures, if any, can a valid standardform
categorical syllogism have a particular premise and a universal
conclusion?
 What are the possible valid forms of a standard form syllogism with an A/E/I/O conclusion?
(TAR Chapter Ten)
 Translate the following propositions into standardform categorical propositions.
 Only powerhungry people become politicians.
 If he isn't rich he isn't successful.
 There are also positive reasons to vote.
 Translate the following propositions into standard form with the help of appropriate parameters.
 Politicians always criticize other politicians when they want to conceal their own shortcomings.
 The use of violence is sometimes beneficial.
 People in subordinate positions do not complain unless provoked.
 Translate the following syllogistic argument into standard form and then
(a) Name the mood and figure of the standard form translation.
(b) Test its validity using the six syllogistic rules.
(c) If it is invalid name the fallacy committed.
 Everyone who smokes marijuana goes on to try heroin. Everyone who
tries heroin becomes addicted to it. So everyone who smokes marijuana
becomes addicted to it.
 Translate the following syllogistic argument into standard form and then
(a) Name its mood and figure.
(b) Test its validity using a Venn diagram.
(c) If it is invalid name the fallacy committed.
 There are plants growing here, and since vegetation requires water, water must be present.
 Explain briefly what (a) Enthymemes and (b) Sorites are.
 Are the following arguments (I, II, & III)
(a) disjunctive, pure hypothetical, or mixed hypothetical?
(b) Are they valid or invalid?
(c) If they are invalid what fallacy do they commit? Identify modus ponens or modus tollens forms where applicable.
I. If the oneeyed prisoner does not know the color of the hat on his
own head, then the blind prisoner cannot have on a red hat. The oneeyed
prisoner does not know the color of the hat on his own head. Therefore the
blind prisoner cannot have on a red hat.
II. If this syllogism commits the fallacy of affirming the consequent then
it is invalid. It does not affirm the consequent, therefore it is valid.
III. The stranger is either a knave or a fool. The stranger is a knave,
therefore he is no fool.
 Attempt to refute the following dilemmas. Explain your
reasoning. Can you grasp the horns of the dilemma or go between the
horns?
I. If the conclusion of a deductive argument goes beyond the premises,
then the argument is invalid, while if the conclusion of a deductive argument
does not go beyond the premises, then the argument brings nothing new to
light. The conclusion of a deductive argument must either go beyond the
premises or not go beyond them. Therefore either deductive arguments are
invalid or they bring nothing new to light.
II. If Socrates died, he died either when he was living or when he was
dead. But he did not die while he was living; for assuredly he was living,
and as living he had not died. Nor when he had died, for then he would be
dead twice. Therefore Socrates did not die.
(TAR Chapter Eleven and Thirteen)
(questions could have multiple examples)

Using the truth tables for conjunction, disjunction, and negation
determine which of the given statements are true. (egs. 8.2.I)

Rewrite the given statement in symbolic form using parentheses (), brackets [],
and braces {} in the correct order. (egs. 8.2.IV)

If A & B are true statements and X & Y are false statements which of
the following are true? (egs. 8.3.I)

If A & B are true statements and X & Y are false statements and the
values of P & Q are unknown, which of the given statements can be
determined to be true or false? (egs. 8.2.III and 8.3.II)

Give the specific forms of the given statements and the given arguments. (8.4.I and 8.5.A)

Use truth Tables to identify which of the given statement forms are tautologous,
selfcontradictory, or contingent. (egs. 8.5.II)

Which of the given biconditionals are tautologies? (egs. 8.5.III)
(TAR Chapter Fourteen and Fifteen)
Name and explain the following fallacies. These have been selected
to be clear examples of certain single fallacies. Select ONE
explanation only for each example.

You should avoid four letter words. ìWorkî is a four letter word. So you should avoid work.

A public lecture was delivered on smoking as a cause of cancer in the
Orr Auditorium. Several students have undertaken never to smoke in that
building again.

Every player of the Washington Redskins is a better player than his
opposite number in the Green Bay Packers. So the Redskins are the
better team.

The local chapter of Phi Sigma Tau has a collective I.Q. of 190, so Dr. Rennie, who is a member, must have an I. Q. of 190.

All plants produce chlorophyll, so the GM plant in Detroit produces chlorophyll.

ìI think I like hot dogs more than you.î
ìWell, if thatís the way you feel, I never want to see you again.î

A recent poll shows that 75% of the people have changed their voting allegiance. You should change yours, too.

I deserve a B+ on this course. If I donít get a B+ I wonít be able to graduate next Fall.

You shouldn't take Danís arguments about farming subsidies seriously
since he manages one of the largest farms in the area..

Yesterday I had a wonderful stroke of luck just after I had seen a black cat. So black cats are lucky.

It is only when it is believed that I could have acted otherwise that I
am held to be morally responsible for what I have done. For a man is
not thought to be morally responsible for what it was not in his power
to avoid.

There is no such thing as a leaderless group. For, though the style of
leadership will differ with each group, a leader will always emerge in a
task oriented group or the task will never get done.

Do you realize that the majority of painful animal experimentation has
no relationship whatever to human survival or the elimination of
disease?

Scientists hope that fish treated with new growth hormones will grow bigger,
faster than normal fish. Other scientists are developing fish that could be
introduced into cold Northern waters where they cannot now survive. The
intention is to boost fish production for food. The economic benefits may be
obvious, but not the risks. Does this make the risks reasonable? No, they
are not.
Section Two.
The fallacies in the following section are slightly more complex. If
you can identify more than one fallacy do so. Explain them both, and
state which you take to have logical priority, that is, to be most
important to the apparent argument

Opponents of monopolies claim they are unfair insofar as they limit competition.
But when AT&T was synonymous with the telephone company, we had the most efficient
telephone system in the world. When Standard Oil dominated the petroleum
industry, there was cheap gasoline for everyone. When ëCarnegieí meant steel,
America dominated steel production. So, obviously, monopolies are extremely
efficient.

To press forward with a properly ordered wage structure in each industry is
the first condition for curbing competitive bargaining; but there is no reason
why the process should stop there. What is good for each industry can hardly
be bad for the economy as a whole.
SCHEDULE OF CLASSES
The class will meet MWF from 8:10 to 9:10 in Patterson Hall 207.
I will be available in my office in Paterson 336 on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday from
11:30 to 1:30, and at other times by arrangement.
Click the number to see the week.
Week 1.
Monday, 8/29
Introduction to the course, the textbook,
"Online Exercises,"
and the class webpage.
Homework: Read TAR Chapter One  Classification.
Wednesday 8/31
Questions on the Homework: Classification.
Homework: Read TAR Chapter Two  Definition.
Friday 9/2
Questions on the Homework: Definition.
Homework: Do computer exercises from 1.1 to 2.3 and Additional Exercises.
Homework: Read TAR Chapter 3.1  Propositions and Word Meaning.
Week 2.
Monday, 9/5
Questions on the Homework: Propositions and Word Meaning.
Homework: Read TAR Chapter 3.2  Propositions and Grammar.
Wednesday, 9/7
Questions on the Homework: Propositions and Grammar.
Homework: Revise TAR Chapters 13. Prepare for Quiz #1.
Friday, 9/9
QUIZ #1 (TAR Chapters 1 through 3: Sample Quiz #1. )
Homework: Read TAR 4.1 and 4.2  Elements of Reasoning and Diagramming Arguments.
More Computer exercises on TAR chapter 3 to chapter 4.2.
Week 3.
Monday, 9/12
Questions on the Homework: Elements of Reasoning and Diagramming Arguments.
Homework: Read TAR 4.3 and 4.4  Evaluating Arguments and Induction and Deduction.
Wednesday, 9/14
Questions on the Homework: Evaluating Arguments and Induction and Deduction.
Homework: Read TAR 4.5 and 4.6  Implicit Premises and Distilling Arguments.
Friday, 9/16
Questions on the Homework: Implicit Premises and Distilling Arguments.
Homework: Read TAR 5.1 and 5.2  Subjectivist Fallacies and Fallacies Involving Credibility.
Computer exercises 4.2 to 5.2.
Prof. Rennie will absent from campus conducting research abroad. The next four weeks of class will be taught by Prof. David Golberg.
Week 4.
Monday, 9/19 (Dr. Goldberg)
Questions on the Homework: Subjectivist Fallacies and Fallacies Involving Credibility
Homework: Read TAR 5.3  Fallacies of Context.
Wednesday, 9/21 (Dr. Goldberg)
Questions on the Homework: Fallacies of Context.
Homework: Read TAR 5.4  Fallacies of Logical Structure.
Friday, 9/23 (Dr. Goldberg)
Questions on the Homework: Fallacies of Logical Structure.
Homework: Revise TAR Chapters 4 and 5. Prepare for Quiz #2 (Sample).
Computer exercises TAR 5.3 and 5.4.
Week 5.
Monday, 9/26 (Dr. Goldberg)
QUIZ #2 (TAR chapters 4 and 5: Sample Quiz #2.).
Homework: Read TAR 6.1  Standard Form Categorial Propositions.
Wednesday, 9/28 (Dr. Goldberg)
Questions on the Homework: Standard Form Categorial Propositions.
Homework: Read TAR 6.2 and 6.3  The Square of Opposition and Existential Import.
Friday, 9/30 (Dr. Goldberg)
Questions on the Homework: The Square of Opposition and Existential Import.
Homework: Read TAR 6.4 and 6.5  Venn Diagrams and Immediate Inference.
Computer exercises TAR 6.1 to 6.5.
Week 6.
Monday, 10/3 (Dr. Goldberg)
Questions on the Homework: Venn Diagrams and Immediate Inference.
Homework: Read TAR 7.1 and 7.2  The Structure of a Syllogism and Validity.
Wednesday, 10/5 (Dr. Goldberg)
Questions on the Homework: The Structure of a Syllogism and Validity.
Homework: Read TAR 7.3 and 7.4  Enthymemes and Rules of Validity.
Friday, 10/7 (Dr. Goldberg)
Questions on the Homework: Enthymemes and Rules of Validity.
Homework: Read TAR 7.5  Venn Diagrams.
Computer exercises TAR 7.1 to 7.5.
Week 7.
Monday, 10/10 (Dr. Goldberg)
Questions on the Homework: Venn Diagrams.
Homework: Revise TAR Chapters 6 and 7  Categorical Propositions and Syllogisms.
Wednesday, 10/12 (Dr. Goldberg)
Revision of Categorical Propositions and Syllogisms. Preparation for Quiz #3 (Sample).
Friday, 10/14 (Dr. Goldberg)
QUIZ #3 (TAR chapters 6 and 7).
Midterm Break: Saturday 10/15 to Tuesday 10/18.
Homework: Read TAR 8.1 and 8.2  Disjunctive Syllogisms and Hypothetical Syllogisms.
Week 8.
Wednesday, 10/19 Prof. Rennie will return to class.
Questions on the Homework: Disjunctive Syllogisms and Hypothetical Syllogisms.
Homework: Read TAR 8.3  Distilling Deductive Arguments.
Friday, 10/21
Questions on the Homework: Distilling Deductive Arguments.
Homework: Read TAR 8.4  Extended Arguments.
Computer exercises TAR 8.1 to 8.4.
Week 9.
Monday 10/24
Questions on the Homework: Extended Arguments.
Homework: Read TAR 9.1 and 9.2  Connectives and Statement Forms.
Wednesday 10/26
Questions on the Homework: Connectives and Statement Forms.
Homework: Read TAR 9.3 and 9.4  Computing Truth Values and Formal Properties and Relationships.
Friday 10/28
Questions on the Homework: Computing Truth Values and Formal Properties and Relationships.
Homework: Revise TAR Chapters 8 and 9, prepare for Quiz #4 (Sample).
Computer exercises TAR 9.1 to 9.4.
Week 10.
Monday, 10/31
QUIZ #4 (TAR chapters 8 and 9).
Homework: Read TAR 10.1, 10.2, 10.3  Truth Tables: Test of Validity and Short Form, and Proof.
Wednesday, 11/2
Questions on the Homework: Truth Tables: Test of Validity and Short Form, and Proof.
Homework: Read TAR 10.4 and 10.5  Equivalence, Conditional Proof and Reductio ad Absurdum.
Friday, 11/4
Questions on the Homework: Equivalence, Conditional Proof and Reductio ad Absurdum.
Homework: Revise TAR Chapter 10, prepare for Quiz #5 (Sample).
Computer exercises TAR 10.1 to 10.5.
Week 11.
Monday, 11/7
QUIZ #5 (TAR chapter 10).
Homework: Read TAR 11.1 and 11.2  Singular, Quantified, and Categorical Statements.
Wednesday, 11/9
Questions on the Homework: Singular, Quantified, and Categorical Statements.
Homework: Read TAR 11.3  Quantifier Scope and Statement Forms.
Friday, 11/11
Questions on the Homework: Quantifier Scope and Statement Forms.
Homework: Read TAR 11.4 and 11.5  Proof, Relations and Multiple Quantification.
Computer exercises TAR 11.1 to 11.5.
Week 12.
Monday 11/14
Questions on the Homework: Proof, Relations and Multiple Quantification..
Homework: Read TAR 13.1 and 13.2  Argument by Analogy.
Wednesday 11/16
Questions on the Homework: Argument by Analogy.
Homework: Revise TAR Chapters 11 and 13.
Friday 11/18
Questions on the Homework: Revision of Chapters 11 and 13.
Homework: Preparation for Quiz #6 (Sample).
Computer exercises TAR 13.1 and 13.2 .
Week 13.
Monday, 11/21
QUIZ #6 (TAR chapters 11 and 13).
Thanksgiving Break, Wednesday 11/23 to Sunday 11/27.
Homework: Read TAR 14.1 and 14.2  Logic and Statistics, Using Statistics in Argument.
Computer exercises TAR 14.1 and 14.2.
Week 14.
Monday 11/28
Questions on the Homework: Argument by Analogy.
Homework: Read TAR 14.3 and 14.4  Statistical Generalization and Evidence of Causality.
Wednesday, 11/30
Questions on the Homework: Statistical Generalization and Evidence of Causality.
Homework: Read TAR 15.1  Explanation and Argument.
Friday, 12/2
Questions on the Homework: Explanation and Argument.
Homework: Read TAR 15.2 and 15.3  Adequacy and Truth of Hypotheses.
Computer exercises TAR 14.3 to 15.3.
Week 15.
Monday 12/5
Questions on the Homework: Adequacy and Truth of Hypotheses.
Homework: Revise TAR Chapter 14 and 15. Prepare for Quiz #7 (Sample).
Wednesday, 12/7
QUIZ #7 (TAR chapters 14 and 15).
Friday, 12/9
Last Day of classes.
Explanation of Final Examination.
The final examination will take place on Tuesday December 13^{th} from 8:00 a.m. to 10:30 a.m. in PH 207.
Term ends Friday,
Decemebr 16^{th}.
The Six Rules of StandardForm Categorical Syllogisms
(and corresponding fallacies)
 A valid standardform categorical syllogism must contain exactly
three terms, each of which is used consistently in the same sense
throughout the argument. (If notfallacy of four terms, quaternio terminorum.)

In a valid standardform categorical syllogism, the middle term must be
distributed in at least one premise. (If notfallacy of the
undistributed middle.)

In a valid standardform categorical syllogism, if either term is
distributed in the conclusion, then it must be distributed in the
premises. (if notillicit major or illicit minor depending on where
the undistributed term occurs.)

No standardform categorical syllogism having two negative premises is valid. (If it doesfallacy of exclusive premises.)
Note that this rule renders all standardform categorical syllogisms of
EO*, EE*, OE*, AND OO* moods INVALID, regardless of their figure.

If either premise of a valid standardform categorical syllogism is
negative, the conclusion must be negative. (Drawing an affirmative
conclusion from a negative premise is a fallacy.)
Note that this rule renders all standardform categorical syllogisms
which have a positive conclusion (**A or **I) and any negative premises
(E or O) INVALID regardless of their figure.

No valid standardform categorical syllogism having a particular
conclusion can have two universal premises. (If it does it commits the
existential fallacy.)
Note that this rule renders all standardform categorical syllogisms
with particular conclusions (**I or **O) and two universal premises (AA,
EE, AE, EA) INVALID regardless of their figure.
Symbols used in Basic Logic.
Symbol used in class 
Alternative form of Symbol 
Name of symbol in class 
Alternative Name(s) of symbol 
Corresponding Verbal expressions 
S ⊃ R 
S → R 
conditional 
consequence implication 
S implies R.
R is a consequence of S.
S has R as a consequence.
If S then R.
R given S.
S only if R.
S is a sufficient condition for R.
R is a necessary condition for S. 
S ≡ R 
S iff R 
biconditional 
equivalence 
S is equivalent to R.
R is equivalent to S.
S if and only if R.
R if and only if S. 
S ∨ R 

disjunction 

S or R.
Either S or R.
S unless R.
Note that all these can be reversed. 
~S 

negation 

not S It is not the case that S 
H ⋅ E 
H ∧ E 
conjunction 

H and E
the conjunction of H and E
both H and E
H but E 
brennie@westminster.edu