The Logic Final Examination: Fall 2016
(Failure to pass the final will be failure to pass the course
--no matter what your other grades may be.)

The exam will consist of a total of 30 questions covering:

  1. Definition by Genus and Species or differentia.

  2. Classification by consistent principle; mutually exclusive and jointly exhaustive classes, concreteness and abstraction.

  3. The definition of propositions: similar sentences that express identical and different propositions; metaphorical expressions.

  4. Compound Propositions and connectives, including restrictive and non-restrictive relative clauses.

  5. The definition and structure of argument: premises and conclusions, dependent and independent premises.

  6. Inductive and deductive argument, implicit propositions (enthymemes).

  7. Informal Fallacies: Subjectivist Fallacies and Fallacies involving Credibility.

  8. Informal Fallacies: Fallacies of Context and Fallacies of Logical Structure.

  9. Standard Form Categorical Propositions and the Square of their Oppositions (traditional and modern). The existential Fallacy.

  10. Immediate Inferences: Contraries, Obversions, Contrapositions.

  11. Venn Diagrams for propositions and arguments.

  12. Mood and figure of Standard Form Categorical Syllogisms.

  13. Validity for Standard Form Categorical Syllogisms (The six rules and distribution).

  14. Compound propositions in Syllogisms: Disjunctive and Hypothetical Syllogisms.

  15. Translation into standard form.

  16. Extended arguments.

  17. Symbolic Logic: the definitions of Conjunction, Disjunction, and Hypotheses.

  18. Truth Tables: Equivalence, Contradiction, Tautology.

  19. Truth Tables: Validity (Omit Short form test for validity)

  20. Proofs using inference forms (Modus Ponens, Modus Tollens, Hypothetical Syllogism, Disjunctive Syllogism).

  21. Additional Inference forms (Simplification, Conjunction, Addition). Omit Dilemmas.

  22. Equivalence Rules (Tautology, Commutation, Association, Distribution, DeMorgan's Law, Double Negation).

  23. Proofs using equivalence rules. Additional Equivalence Rules (Contraposition, Implication, Biconditional, Exportation, and Quantifier Negation). Omit conditional proofs, reductio ad absurdum, generalization and instantiation.

  24. Predicate Logic: Expressing unquantified statements in symbolic notation.

  25. Predicate Logic: Expressing quantified statements in symbolic notation.

  26. Relational statements in symbolic notation.

  27. Argument by Analogy.

  28. Statistical Reasoning: The three major types of statistical information.

  29. Statistical Generalization and potential bias.

  30. Statistical support for inductive arguments.