(Failure to pass the final will be failure to pass the course

--no matter what your other grades may be.)

The exam will consist of a total of 30 questions covering:

- Definition by Genus and Species or
*differentia*. - Classification by consistent principle; mutually exclusive and jointly exhaustive classes, concreteness and abstraction.
- The definition of propositions: similar sentences that express identical and different propositions; metaphorical expressions.
- Compound Propositions and connectives, including restrictive and non-restrictive relative clauses.
- The definition and structure of argument: premises and conclusions, dependent and independent premises.
- Inductive and deductive argument, implicit propositions (enthymemes).
- Informal Fallacies: Subjectivist Fallacies and Fallacies involving Credibility.
- Informal Fallacies: Fallacies of Context and Fallacies of Logical Structure.
- Standard Form Categorical Propositions and the Square of their Oppositions (traditional and modern). The existential Fallacy.
- Immediate Inferences: Contraries, Obversions, Contrapositions.
- Venn Diagrams for propositions and arguments.
- Mood and figure of Standard Form Categorical Syllogisms.
- Validity for Standard Form Categorical Syllogisms (The six rules and distribution).
- Compound propositions in Syllogisms: Disjunctive and Hypothetical Syllogisms.
- Translation into standard form.
- Extended arguments.
- Symbolic Logic: the definitions of Conjunction, Disjunction, and Hypotheses.
- Truth Tables: Equivalence, Contradiction, Tautology.
- Truth Tables: Validity (
*Omit Short form test for validity*) - Proofs using inference forms (
*Modus Ponens*,*Modus Tollens*, Hypothetical Syllogism, Disjunctive Syllogism). - Additional Inference forms (Simplification, Conjunction, Addition).
*Omit Dilemmas*. - Equivalence Rules (Tautology, Commutation, Association, Distribution, DeMorgan's Law, Double Negation).
- Proofs using equivalence rules. Additional Equivalence Rules (Contraposition, Implication, Biconditional, Exportation, and Quantifier Negation).
*Omit conditional proofs, reductio ad absurdum, generalization and instantiation*. - Predicate Logic: Expressing unquantified statements in symbolic notation.
- Predicate Logic: Expressing quantified statements in symbolic notation.
- Relational statements in symbolic notation.
- Argument by Analogy.
- Statistical Reasoning: The three major types of statistical information.
- Statistical Generalization and potential bias.
- Statistical support for inductive arguments.