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Course Descriptions

AST 141 Planets (SD) (4.00 SH). This course is an introduction to the science of planets, from our own Earth to exoplanets around distant stars, as well as the moons, asteroids, comets, and other bits of rock and ice that exist where planets do. We will study the properties of these objects; learn how they form, evolve and interact with their environment; explore the processes in their atmospheres, on their surfaces, and within their cores; learn how astronomers are able to detect these objects around distant stars; and, finally, study the past, present, and future of robotic and manned exploration of the Solar System and beyond. A laboratory is included. Meets Scientific Discovery Intellectual Perspective requirement (SD).

AST 142 Stars (SD) (4.00 SH). This course is an introduction to the science of stars. When we look up at the night sky, a few thousand stars can be seen with the unaided eye. Using telescopes, we have found that another few hundred billion exist in our Galaxy. But these stars are not all the same. From the smallest brown dwarfs to the largest blue supergiants, and from young stellar objects to deadly black holes, we will explore and study the processes that form, shape, power, and, in some cases, destroy stars. We will learn that life on Earth is at the same time sustained and threatened by stars. Most of all, we will learn that the atoms in our bodies, in the air we breathe, in the jewelry we wear, and in most everything we see were forged by stars long ago: we are stardust, and to stardust we will one day return. A laboratory is included. Meets Scientific Discovery Intellectual Perspective requirement (SD).

AST 143 Galaxies and Cosmology (SD) (4.00 SH).

AST 161 Life in the Universe (SD) (4.00 SH). Currently, we only know of life in one place: on Earth. This course is an introduction to the science behind the possibilities for finding life in places other than on Earth. We will investigate the scientific understanding of what life means, including the biochemical basis for life on Earth. We will investigate the conditions necessary for the formation and existence of life and where those conditions may exist in our Universe. Finally, we will talk about the search for evidence of life on other planets and moons in our Solar System and the cutting edge discovery of potentially habitable planets and moons around other stars. It is difficult to imagine a scientific discovery that would have a greater impact on our sense of place in the Universe than the definitive discovery of life that has arisen on a place other than Earth. To date, we know of no examples, but in all probability, within a few decades, we will either have discovered evidence that life exists elsewhere or we will be able to set very stringent limits on how common a life-bearing planet such as Earth is in a galaxy such as ours. A laboratory is included. Meets Scientific Discovery Intellectual Perspective requirement (SD).

BIO 101 Concepts Of Biology (SD) (4.00 SH). A general survey course designed for education majors and students making a transition to the biology, molecular biology, or environmental science curriculum. (Students from other non-science majors seeking to fulfill their Scientific Discovery IP should consider other 100-level courses.) Students explore ways of observing and thinking about fundamental biological processes common to many living organisms. The goal of this class is to help students become better citizens and teachers of science by increasing their ability to make informed decisions regarding current and future scientific discoveries. Emphasis is placed upon identifying and studying topics of a biological nature that are relevant to modern society. A laboratory is included, during which time students will apply the scientific method and develop critical thinking and inductive reasoning skills. Offered every semester. Meets Scientific Discovery Intellectual Perspective requirement (SD).

BIO 102 Understanding Evolution (SD) (4.00 SH). A course for the non-science major. Biological evolution is examined from a historical perspective, from inception to our current understanding of this unifying theory of biology. Natural selection and the modern genetic theory of evolution as continuing processes are emphasized, as are the ways that evolution as a theory is testable by the scientific method. A laboratory is included. If this course is offered as a cluster, students must also register for ENG 106. Meets Scientific Discovery Intellectual Perspective requirement (SD).

BIO 106 Human Biology (SD) (4.00 SH). An introductory course for non-science major designed to introduce the student to the workings of the human body. Emphasis will be placed on an understanding of how an homeostatic balance must be maintained for proper functioning of our various organ systems. A laboratory is included. This course is intended for non-science majors and is not open to biology, molecular biology, neuroscience, or environmental science majors. Meets Scientific Discovery Intellectual Perspective requirement (SD).

BIO 108 Human Genome (SD) (4.00 SH). An introductory course for non-science majors. The primary objectives of this course are to provide college students with a fundamental understanding of scientific technologies and concepts underlying the Human Genome Project and genetic research, and to make students aware of the ethical, social, and legal implications of this monumental achievement. Students will also develop an appreciation for the types of questions that science can and cannot answer using the scientific approach. During laboratory sessions, students will study the inheritance patterns of humans and other organisms, extract DNA from their own cells, analyze their DNA using a variety of genetic techniques and participate in a mock trial. If this course is offered is a cluster, students must also register for ENG 137. Meets Scientific Discovery Intellectual Perspective requirement (SD).

BIO 112 Pharmacology (SD) (4.00 SH). An introductory course for non-science majors that aims to give students a background in what drugs are, how drugs affect the body, and how a drug is discovered and approved for public use. This course will cover basic concepts in human physiology, the cellular and molecular level aspects of drug function, and ethical considerations surrounding drug testing and drug use to treat childhood dysfunctions. The laboratory section of this course will include hands-on demonstrations of the scientific method, detailed case studies, and exercises that promote scientific literacy and critical evaluation of marketing claims. If this course is taught as a cluster, students must also register for EDU 201, where different disabilities are discussed on a weekly basis that correspond with drugs and treatments discussed in BIO 112. Meets Scientific Discovery Intellectual Perspective requirement (SD).

BIO 113 Global & American Epidemics (SD) (4.00 SH). An introductory course for non-science majors which explores the causes, pathology, epidemiology and treatment of infectious diseases, through examples of epidemics that have occurred throughout history in the United States and that are occurring currently around the globe. We will also take a look at emerging diseases such as hemorrhagic fevers and multi-drug resistant infections. BIO 113 is a service-learning course. Students will be expected to participate in an ongoing, service learning project which includes the development of educational materials to enhance the education of school children in Africa. A laboratory component is included and BIO 113 fulfills the SD IP requirement for graduation. Meets Scientific Discovery Intellectual Perspective requirement (SD).

BIO 151 Biology of Sex (SD) (4.00 SH). A course for non-science majors, examining biological aspects of human sexuality. Content covered will include male and female reproductive anatomy and physiology, the biology of sexual responses, sexual dysfunctions, genetic basis of sex, sexual development, pregnancy and birth control, sexually transmitted diseases, and biological perspectives on gender identity. While the course focuses on a biological understanding of sex, information and perspectives from other disciplines will be liberally incorporated. Laboratories will both reinforce specific course content as well as provide opportunity for students to apply scientific methodology and hypothesis testing. Course subjects and materials are frank, explicit and graphic; suggested for students with serious interest and mature sensibilities. If this course is offered as a cluster, students must also register for ENG 106. Meets Scientific Discovery Intellectual Perspective requirement (SD).

BIO 201 Cell Biology & Genetics (SD) (4.00 SH). This course serves as an introduction for students who have chosen biology or molecular biology as a major or minor. A combination of lectures, laboratory exercises, and assignments will introduce students to ways of observing and thinking about fundamental concepts and processes in the following areas of biology—biochemistry, cell structure and function, metabolism, genetics, and biotechnology. Various resources will be utilized to reinforce biological concepts, learn new laboratory skills, and improve critical thinking skills. Multiple sections offered every Fall Semester; one section offered every Spring Semester. Meets Scientific Discovery Intellectual Perspective requirement (SD).

BIO 335 Anatomy/Physiology (4.00 SH). First of a two-course sequence studying the anatomical and physiological principles of the human body, including a survey of the major organ systems of the human body and their relationship to health and disease. Emphasis is placed on cells, tissues, and the musculo-skeletal, nervous, and endocrine systems. A laboratory is included. Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 202. Offered Fall Semester, alternate years.

CHE 101 Our Chemical World & Lab (SD) (4.00 SH). An investigation of a number of areas of everyday life and some chemical factors that have significant effects on our lives. Chemistry interacts with other scientific, social, political and economic factors. Examples include our use of energy, pharmaceutical drugs, water, use of non-renewable resources, and waste disposal. The laboratory emphasizes investigation of systems, collection of data and observations, and devising logical explanations. (This course cannot be used as part of a chemistry major or minor. PreK-4 early childhood education/PreK-8 special education majors may use this course to meet the physical science requirement.) Meets Scientific Discovery Intellectual Perspective requirement (SD).

CHE 105 Intro Environmental Chemistry (SD) (4.00 SH). This course uses environmental themes in the study of the language of chemistry, atomic and molecular structure, chemical reactions and their energy changes, and mathematical relationships. Relationships between chemistry and society are explored through the concepts of sustainability and green chemistry. The laboratory program will involve investigation of environmental chemistry, analysis and interpretation of both qualitative and quantitative data, as well as communication of the results. CHE 105 can serve as a prerequesite for CHE 117 for students who have not had a previous course in chemistry or who have demonstrated the need for additional preparation in chemistry. (This coruse cannot be used as part of a chemistry major or minor. PreK-4 early childhood education/PreK-8 special education majors may use this course to meet the physical science requirement.) Offered Fall Semester.

CHE 111 Foundations of Chemistry (SD) (4.00 SH). A study of the properties and the particulate nature of matter, the language of chemistry, the periodic table, atomic and molecular structure, and the energy changes that accompany chemical reactions. The laboratory program will involve investigation of chemical systems, analysis and interpretation of both qualitative and quantitative data, as well as communication of the results. CHE 111 is for students who have not had a previous course in chemistry or whose performance on a placement test has demonstrated the need for additional preparation in chemistry prior to taking CHE 117. (This course cannot be used as part of a chemistry major or minor.) Offered Fall Semester. Meets Scientific Discovery Intellectual Perspective requirement (SD).

CHE 117 Principles of Chemistry (SD) (4.00 SH). A course emphasizing stoichiometry, chemical equilibria, acids and bases, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, electrochemistry, nuclear phenomena, and interactions of science and society. In the laboratory program students will investigate chemical systems, analyze observations and data, devise explanations, and communicate results. Prerequisites: High school chemistry and an acceptable score on a placement test or completion of CHE 111 or ES 160 with a grade of C- or better. Offered Fall and Spring semesters. Meets Scientific Discovery Intellectual Perspective requirement (SD).

CJS 102 Deviance (ST) (4.00 SH). An exploration of norm-breaking behavior and its consequences. Traditional and contemporary theories of deviance will be examined, as will particular areas of deviant behavior. The change in definitions of what is regarded as deviant will be dealt with at length. Meets Social Thought and Tradition Intellectual Perspective requirement (ST).

CJS 201 Juvenile Delinquency & Justice (ST) (4.00 SH). An exploration of juvenile misconduct and its legal consequences. Theories explaining juvenile delinquency from a variety of perspectives will be examined. The emergence and present state of the juvenile justice system will be covered as well. Offered Spring Semester. Meets Social Thought and Tradition Intellectual Perspective requirement (ST).

ECE 201 Issues & Trends (3.00 SH). This course will focus on the current trends and practices of early childhood education programs which serve children from birth to age nine. Professional development, history and theories, programming, development and learning, and the special needs of young children will be addressed as they relate to early childhood education.

ECE 203 Family-School-Community Diversity (3.00 SH). The focus of this course in on understanding how families and communities are significant contexts for children’s development and school success. Based upon these insights, students will collaboratively explore ways to build bridges of understanding between diverse schools, families, and communities. Student engagement with diverse families at a Family Reading Night as well as in field experiences will allow the student to critically reflect on a family’s funds of knowledge in light of different cultural ways of knowing. The students will use these discoveries to develop culturally responsive explorations for their future classrooms.

ECE 321 Math For Preschool (2.00 SH). This course is an introduction to the content and methods of teaching mathematics in the PreK years which meets the PA Early Childhood Education standards. Instructional strategies are based on a constructivist approach emphasizing problem solving, estimation and making sense of mathematics. The role of technology in instruction, modern trends in mathematics education, research, and application of skills are included. The use of age-appropriate manipulative materials in a laboratory situation and group problem solving are developed as classroom models of instruction. Practicum experience required.

ECE 322 Math for Primary Grades (2.00 SH). This course is an introduction to the content and methods of teaching mathematics in the primary grades which meets the PA Academic and National Council of Teachers of Mathematics standards. Instructional strategies are based on a constructivist approach emphasizing problem solving, estimation and making sense of mathematics. The role of technology in instruction, modern trends in mathematics education, research, and application of skills are included. The use of age-appropriate manipulative materials in a laboratory situation and group problem solving are developed as classroom models of instruction. Practicum experience required.

ECE 331 Language Development Pre-K (2.00 SH). This course is designed to examine the developmental sequence of language acquisition and knowledge of phonics from PreK-4. It will also examine the language arts receptive and productive categories of oral, written, and visual language as part of a classroom curriculum.

ECE 332 Language Development Primary (2.00 SH). This course is designed to examine the developmental sequence of language acquisition and knowledge of phonics from grades K-4. It will also examine the language arts receptive and productive categories of oral, written, and visual language as part of a classroom curriculum.

ECE 341 Emergent Literacy (2.00 SH). An introductory study of various theories of emergent literacy and literacy development. Students examine how children’s literacy roots evolve from their home and community lives. The role of comprehension and phonics instruction within guided and shared reading experiences is studied. Emphasis is placed upon building family-school partnerships. Practicum experience required.

ECE 342 Literacy in Primary (2.00 SH). An introductory study of various literacy theories. Emphasis is placed on exploring how literacy curriculum, instruction, and assessment inform each other. Systematic evaluation tools for proficient and struggling readers are explored. Practicum experience required.

ECE 352 Social Studies (4.00 SH). Social Studies PreK-8 is a required course with the goal of equipping prospective PreK-4 Early Childhood teachers with tools for teaching social studies to children. This course requires that the student works to develop initial ideas of social studies teaching which include methods of content selection, methods of teaching, and be able to explain the critical role of social studies education in the school curriculum. Students will develop a social studies unit that will be taught during practicum.

ECE 362 PreK-4 Practicum (2.00 SH). This course is designed to provide pre-service teacher candidates with hands-on experiences in observing and assessing children. In PreK-4 settings, students will teach lessons, administer assessment instruments, use curriculum based measurement, and evaluate and interpret the results for instructional purposes.

ECE 605 Early Childhood PreK-4 Capstone (6.00 SH). Student teaching (12 SH) is a supervised dual student teaching experience open to Early Childhood PreK-4 and Special Education PreK-8 majors who have completed the pattern of required courses. Students are required to participate in related seminars.

EDU 231 Educational Psychology (4.00 SH). A study of the teaching and learning process for students preparing to teach children and adolescents. The units of the course include learning, instruction, human development, motivation, management, assessment and the learner. A practicum with children and/or adolescents is included. This course is offered by the Department of Education and does not count toward a psychology major, minor or as a course within the discipline.

EDU 231C C:Educational Psychology (4.00 SH).

EDU 311 Teaching Science (4.00 SH). Introduction to the content and methods of science in the PreK-8 schools. Careful attention is given to the organization and conduct of meaningful science learning experiences at the various age levels. The roles of inquiry and discovery teaching, hands-on-learning activities, and current research are studied as they relate to children’s acquisition of science concepts. Special attention is given to the treatment of values in science. Prerequisites: life science and physical science or permission of instructor. For Early Childhood PreK-4/ Special Education PreK-8 majors.

EDU 562 Field Experience I (2.00 SH). This course is an off-campus experience in PreK-8 school setting intended to provide the student with opportunities to participate with teachers and children in classrooms. For Early Childhood PreK-4/Special Education PreK-8 majors. Prerequisites: Must have completed at least one semester and one education course at Westminster College and have a GPA of at least 2.800. Graded S/U.

ELL 206 English Language Learner (3.00 SH). The course is designed to infuse the teachers competencies related to meeting the instructional needs of English language learners. The course will explore the language, culture, standards-based instruction, assessment, and professionalism in order to understand and teach linguistically diverse learners effectively. Certification students PreK-12 are required to take this course.

ENG 108 American Playwrights (HC) (4.00 SH). Studies in English, American, world or comparative literature, or in specific literary genres and themes. Individual sections experiment with different approaches and topics. The times and a brief description of each course is provided each semester. These courses are designed primarily for non-English majors. More than one ENG 101–199 may be taken for credit, as long as each course is different. Meets Humanity and Culture Intellectual Perspective requirement (HC).

ENG 109 The Sporting Spirit (HC) (4.00 SH). Studies in English, American, world or comparative literature, or in specific literary genres and themes. Individual sections experiment with different approaches and topics. The times and a brief description of each course is provided each semester. These courses are designed primarily for non-English majors. More than one ENG 101–199 may be taken for credit, as long as each course is different. Meets Humanity and Culture Intellectual Perspective requirement (HC).

ENG 111 Women Writers (HC) (4.00 SH). Studies in English, American, world or comparative literature, or in specific literary genres and themes. Individual sections experiment with different approaches and topics. The times and a brief description of each course is provided each semester. These courses are designed primarily for non-English majors. More than one ENG 101–199 may be taken for credit, as long as each course is different. Meets Humanity and Culture Intellectual Perspective requirement (HC).

ENG 112 Adaptation of Literature/Film (HC) (4.00 SH). Studies in English, American, world or comparative literature, or in specific literary genres and themes. Individual sections experiment with different approaches and topics. The times and a brief description of each course is provided each semester. These courses are designed primarily for non-English majors. More than one ENG 101–199 may be taken for credit, as long as each course is different. Meets Humanity and Culture Intellectual Perspective requirement (HC).

ENG 113 Shakespeare (HC) (4.00 SH). Studies in English, American, world or comparative literature, or in specific literary genres and themes. Individual sections experiment with different approaches and topics. The times and a brief description of each course is provided each semester. These courses are designed primarily for non-English majors. More than one ENG 101–199 may be taken for credit, as long as each course is different. Meets Humanity and Culture Intellectual Perspective requirement (HC).

ENG 114 The Study of the Short Story (HC) (4.00 SH). Studies in English, American, world or comparative literature, or in specific literary genres and themes. Individual sections experiment with different approaches and topics. The times and a brief description of each course is provided each semester. These courses are designed primarily for non-English majors. More than one ENG 101–199 may be taken for credit, as long as each course is different. Meets Humanity and Culture Intellectual Perspective requirement (HC).

ENG 116 It's Monstrous (HC) (4.00 SH). Studies in English, American, world or comparative literature, or in specific literary genres and themes. Individual sections experiment with different approaches and topics. The times and a brief description of each course is provided each semester. These courses are designed primarily for non-English majors. More than one ENG 101–199 may be taken for credit, as long as each course is different. Meets Humanity and Culture Intellectual Perspective requirement (HC).

ENG 119 Arthurian Legend (HC) (2.00 SH). Studies in English, American, world or comparative literature, or in specific literary genres and themes. Individual sections experiment with different approaches and topics. The times and a brief description of each course is provided each semester. These courses are designed primarily for non-English majors. More than one ENG 101–199 may be taken for credit, as long as each course is different. Meets Humanity and Culture Intellectual Perspective requirement (HC).

ENG 124 African American Drama (HC) (4.00 SH). Studies in English, American, world or comparative literature, or in specific literary genres and themes. Individual sections experiment with different approaches and topics. The times and a brief description of each course is provided each semester. These courses are designed primarily for non-English majors. More than one ENG 101–199 may be taken for credit, as long as each course is different. Meets Humanity and Culture Intellectual Perspective requirement (HC).

ENG 133 Adolescent Literature (HC) (4.00 SH). Studies in English, American, world or comparative literature, or in specific literary genres and themes. Individual sections experiment with different approaches and topics. The times and a brief description of each course is provided each semester. These courses are designed primarily for non-English majors. More than one ENG 101–199 may be taken for credit, as long as each course is different. Meets Humanity and Culture Intellectual Perspective requirement (HC).

ENG 135 Southern Writers (HC) (4.00 SH). Studies in English, American, world or comparative literature, or in specific literary genres and themes. Individual sections experiment with different approaches and topics. The times and a brief description of each course is provided each semester. These courses are designed primarily for non-English majors. More than one ENG 101–199 may be taken for credit, as long as each course is different. Meets Humanity and Culture Intellectual Perspective requirement (HC).

ENG 136 Classic Greek Literature (HC) (4.00 SH). Studies in English, American, world or comparative literature, or in specific literary genres and themes. Individual sections experiment with different approaches and topics. The times and a brief description of each course is provided each semester. These courses are designed primarily for non-English majors. More than one ENG 101–199 may be taken for credit, as long as each course is different. Meets Humanity and Culture Intellectual Perspective requirement (HC).

ENG 138 19th Century Literature (HC) (4.00 SH). Studies in English, American, world or comparative literature, or in specific literary genres and themes. Individual sections experiment with different approaches and topics. The times and a brief description of each course is provided each semester. These courses are designed primarily for non-English majors. More than one ENG 101–199 may be taken for credit, as long as each course is different. Meets Humanity and Culture Intellectual Perspective requirement (HC).

ENG 141 Journalist in Lit & Film (HC) (4.00 SH). Studies in English, American, world or comparative literature, or in specific literary genres and themes. Individual sections experiment with different approaches and topics. The times and a brief description of each course is provided each semester. These courses are designed primarily for non-English majors. More than one ENG 101–199 may be taken for credit, as long as each course is different. Meets Humanity and Culture Intellectual Perspective requirement (HC).

ENG 142 Fantasy,Fairytales & Folklore (HC) (4.00 SH). Studies in English, American, world or comparative literature, or in specific literary genres and themes. Individual sections experiment with different approaches and topics. The times and a brief description of each course is provided each semester. These courses are designed primarily for non-English majors. More than one ENG 101–199 may be taken for credit, as long as each course is different. Meets Humanity and Culture Intellectual Perspective requirement (HC).

ENG 144 Contemporary Literature (HC) (4.00 SH). Studies in English, American, world or comparative literature, or in specific literary genres and themes. Individual sections experiment with different approaches and topics. The times and a brief description of each course is provided each semester. These courses are designed primarily for non-English majors. More than one ENG 101–199 may be taken for credit, as long as each course is different. Meets Humanity and Culture Intellectual Perspective requirement (HC).

ENG 145L African Literature (HC) (4.00 SH).

ENG 198 20th Cent Brit Fict (4.00 SH).

ENG 199 Intro To Shakespeare (4.00 SH).

ENG 240 Intro Literary Study/British (4.00 SH). This course is designed to immerse entering English majors and minors in the materials, methods, and current issues of the discipline. Working with British literature, students are introduced to critical approaches they will continue to use in upper level English courses. A variety of written and oral assignments help students develop their skills in the discipline. It is suggested, though not required, that students take this course before taking ENG 250. Required of all English majors and minors. Meets Humanity and Culture Intellectual Perspective requirement (HC).

ENG 250 Intro Lit Stdy/Amer (4.00 SH). This course is designed to immerse entering English majors and minors in the materials, methods,­ and current issues of the discipline. Working with American literature, students are introduced to critical approaches they will continue to use in upper level English courses. A variety of written and oral assignments help students develop their skills in the discipline. It is suggested, though not required, that students take this course after taking ENG 240. Required of all English majors and minors.

ES 160 Concepts Environmental Science (SD) (4.00 SH). An investigation of the effect of humans on the Earth’s environment and on the other species that inhabit our planet. The course will look at the impact that an increasing human population has on the resource utilization, pollution production, habitat degradation, and the extinction of species. It will include a brief look at the policies and laws that specifically relate to environmental problems. Meets Scientific Discovery Intellectual Perspective requirement (SD).

GEL 121 Intro to Geology (4.00 SH).

GEO 101 World Geography (4.00 SH). An introductory course in world regional geography. The study of our “place” on the planet is related to the National Geography Standards. The course will consider such topics as factors in development and lack of development, economics, plate tectonics, topography, climate, and population. Economics strand included.

HIS 101 Civilization to 1715 (HC) (4.00 SH). A study of the development of civilization with emphasis on ancient, medieval, and early modern societies. The course includes political, economic, socio-cultural, and religious perspectives on major historical personalities and events. Meets Humanity and Culture Intellectual Perspective requirement (HC).

HIS 102 Civilization since 1715 (HC) (4.00 SH). A study of civilization from the death of Louis XIV to the present. The course emphasizes the political and cultural developments of Western society, including the influences of rationalism, industrialism, and nationalism. Meets Humanity and Culture Intellectual Perspective requirement (HC).

HIS 105 America To 1877 (HC) (4.00 SH). This course covers the birth of America in Europe, and traces the development of a new society based on the encounter of Native American Indians, European-American settlers, and African-Americans.. The course includes a detailed examination of the American Revolution, the creation of a new nation under the Constitution, westward expansion, Jacksonian democracy, sectionalism, slavery, economic development, changes in family and women’s roles, Romanticism, religion, reform, and the Civil War. The interplay of economic development, demographics, and social structure are highlighted. This course seeks to put U.S. history within a global context, while also exposing students to historiographical questions in an introductory fashion. Meets Humanity and Culture Intellectual Perspective requirement (HC).

HIS 106 America since 1865 (HC) (4.00 SH). A survey of American history from the end of the Civil War until the present. Major topics addressed include Reconstruction, immigration, urbanization and the rise of large-scale industry, World War I, the Great Depression, World War II, the Cold War, and de-industrialization. Major themes include the changing role of women; the changing place of African Americans in US society; the interplay of economic development, demographics, and social structure; and the role of the United States in the world. This course seeks to put US history within a global context, while also exposing students to historiographical questions in an introductory fashion. Meets Humanity and Culture Intellectual Perspective requirement (HC).

HIS 120 Early Christian HIstory (RP) (4.00 SH).

HIS 121 Ancient Greece (HC) (4.00 SH).

HIS 122 Rome (HC) (4.00 SH).

HIS 123 Middle Ages (HC) (4.00 SH).

HIS 124 Renaissance & Reformation (HC) (4.00 SH).

HIS 125 Early Modern France (ST) (4.00 SH).

HIS 126 19th Century Europe (HC) (4.00 SH).

HIS 129 History of Women in Mod Europe (ST) (4.00 SH).

HIS 131 England:The Age of Elizabeth I (HC) (4.00 SH).

HIS 132 England:The Age of Empire (4.00 SH).

HIS 136 20th Century Europe (HC) (4.00 SH).

HIS 151 Medieval & Early Modern Russia (HC) (4.00 SH).

HIS 152 Modern Russia (HC) (4.00 SH).

HIS 153 History of Religion in Russia (RP) (4.00 SH).

HIS 162 Japan (ST) (4.00 SH).

HIS 171 Latin America to 1825 (HC) (4.00 SH).

HIS 172 Latin America from 1825 (HC) (4.00 SH).

HIS 181 Africa To 1800 (HC) (4.00 SH).

HIS 182 Africa since 1800 (HC) (4.00 SH).

HIS 222 Social&Intellectual History US (ST) (4.00 SH). A study of the major currents of the intellectual and social development of the United States. Topics include the development of public and private education, American philosophers and their thought, the relationship between religion and science, the evolution of social behavior, technological development and its consequences, and main currents within the arts. Meets Social Thought and Tradition Intellectual Perspective requirement (ST).

HIS 225 American History 1945-1974 (HC) (4.00 SH). This course will focus on the politics and culture of America from the end of 1945 to the resignation of Richard M. Nixon. Through lectures, reading, discussion, research, and presentations, students will explore this fascinating period. Special topics will include the Civil Rights movement, the war in Vietnam, campus unrest, the various liberation movements, and the many other significant transformations of the period. Meets Humanity and Culture Intellectual Perspective requirement (HC).

HIS 226 The American Civil War (4.00 SH). A study of the causes, events, and consequences of the American Civil War, with emphasis on the comparative strategy and tactics of the North and the South and the major personalities that shape the results. The course also covers the social and cultural conditions during the war. The reading of novels about the period, both contemporary and modern enhances the study of both military and non-military aspects of war, and helps us appreciate the current meaning of the war for Americans.

HIS 232 Ancient Greece (HC) (4.00 SH). A study of the political and cultural history of ancient Greece to the end of the Hellenistic age. Meets Humanity and Culture Intellectual Perspective requirement (HC).

HIS 233 Rome (HC) (4.00 SH). A study of Roman political and cultural history to 565 A.D. Special attention is given to the development of Roman political, social, and religious institutions. Meets Humanity and Culture Intellectual Perspective requirement (HC).

HIS 234 Early Christnty:Christ&Caesar (RP) (4.00 SH). An examination of the history of the Christian Church within the environment of the Roman Empire during the first five centuries of its existence, and of the interaction of the Church with that environment in its political, socioeconomic, religious, and cultural aspects. (Also listed as REL 131.) Meets Religious and Philosophical Though Intellectual Perspective requirement (RP).

HIS 235 The Middle Ages, 300-1300 (HC) (4.00 SH). A socio-cultural examination of the development of early European society. Beginning with a basic definition of medieval society, the course emphasizes the emergence of feudalism, the middle classes, urban centers, and the earliest forms of the nation-state. Meets Humanity and Culture Intellectual Perspective requirement (HC).

HIS 240 Renaissance & Reformation (HC) (4.00 SH). A study of the emergence of modern European civilization. Beginning with a review of early European society and institutions, then traces their replacements by the national state, capitalism, and the reformed churches. Meets Humanity and Culture Intellectual Perspective requirement (HC).

HIS 241 Early Modern France (ST) (4.00 SH). This period in European history witnesses the radical changes in politics, thought, society, and warfare. Special emphasis is given to absolutism, enlightenment, the French Revolution, Napoleon, the rise of the middle class, and the importance of science and technology. Meets Social Thought and Tradition Intellectual Perspective requirement (ST).

HIS 245 19th Century Europe (HC) (4.00 SH). A study of the political, social, economic, and diplomatic background of Europe from the Napoleonic Era to the close of the century. Meets Humanity and Culture Intellectual Perspective requirement (HC).

HIS 246 Twentieth-Century Europe (HC) (4.00 SH). A study of the political, economic, and cultural development of Europe from the opening of the century to the present. Meets Humanity and Culture Intellectual Perspective requirement (HC).

HIS 251 Medieval & Early Mod Russia (HC) (4.00 SH). A study of the political, economic, and cultural development of Russia from the earliest times to 1860. Meets Humanity and Culture Intellectual Perspective requirement (HC).

HIS 252 Modern Russia (HC) (4.00 SH). A study of the late Imperial structure and an analysis of the origin, development, and character of the Soviet state and society. Particular attention will be paid to the post-Soviet period (since the collapse of the USSR in 1991). Meets Humanity and Culture Intellectual Perspective requirement (HC).

HIS 253 History of Religion in Russia (RP) (4.00 SH). An introduction to the Eastern Orthodox tradition, with particular attention to how it evolved and was celebrated in Russia. Students will explore the dogmas, liturgy, iconography, and history of the Orthodox Church, and attention will be paid to the relationship between the Church and the State, particularly under communism. Attention will also be given to a comparison of Orthodoxy with Western Christian faiths. (Also listed as REL 211.) Meets Religious and Philosophical Though Intellectual Perspective requirement (RP).

HIS 262 Japan (ST) (4.00 SH). A survey of the cultural, political, social, and economic history of Japan from the earliest times to the present. Particular attention will be paid to the period since the Meiji Revolution. Topics will include: the Shogunate and the imperial system; Buddhism and Shintoism; Japanese militarism; and Japan as a modern economic power. Meets Social Thought and Tradition Intellectual Perspective requirement (ST).

HIS 271 Latin America to 1825 (HC) (4.00 SH). A study of Latin America from its indigenous beginnings, through the colonial period, to the conclusion of the wars for independence. The influences of the indigenous and Iberian cultures on the development of the region are compared. Meets Humanity and Culture Intellectual Perspective requirement (HC).

HIS 272 Latin America From 1825 (HC) (4.00 SH). A study of Latin America from 1825 to the present with emphasis upon its political, cultural, and economic importance in world affairs. Meets Humanity and Culture Intellectual Perspective requirement (HC).

HIS 281 Africa to 1800 (HC) (4.00 SH). A survey of African history from the earliest times until 1800. The course examines major political, economic and cultural developments across the continent, including human origins, the great civilizations of the first millennium, and the slave trade. Meets Humanity and Culture Intellectual Perspective requirement (HC).

HIS 282 Africa since 1800 (HC) (4.00 SH). A survey of African history from 1800 to the 21st century. The course traces the major political, economic, and cultural developments on the continent, including European imperialism, African independence, and Africa in the age of globalization. Meets Humanity and Culture Intellectual Perspective requirement (HC).

INQ 111 Intro to Liberal Arts Education (4.00 SH). This course introduces Westminster students to the philosophy and practice of a liberal arts education. Students investigate classic and emerging questions which arise out of current social and intellectual concerns and exchange ideas within a supportive learning community. In the first part of the course, students evaluate traditional and contemporary discussions of liberal education and examine the ways liberal education is practiced at Westminster College. In the second part of the course, students apply the methods of a liberal education by investigating issues from multiple disciplinary and cultural perspectives. Instruction in information literacy and technology supports student research.

INQ 111W Intro Lib Arts Ed (4.00 SH).

INQ 211 Studying Liberal Arts @ Westminster (4.00 SH).

LENG 139 Literature 18th Cent England (HC) (4.00 SH).

MTH 110 Mathematical Perspectives (QR) (4.00 SH). An introduction to quantitative concepts and skills, which enable students to interpret and reason with quantitative information. While each section of the course fulfills the quantitative reasoning requirement, the topics covered may vary from section to section. (Offered every semester.) Meets Quantitative Reasoning Intellectual Perspective requirement (QR).

MTH 124 Mathematical Perspectives II (2.00 SH). This course continues the development of concepts and skills that will enable students to interpret and reason with quantitative information. Prerequisite: a C- or higher in MTH 110 or MTH 131 or MTH 135 or appropriate advanced placement credit. (Offered every semester.)

MTH 130 Pre-Calculus (4.00 SH). A precalculus course for those who need a better foundation in algebraic concepts, functions and graphing. Topics of study include algebra fundamentals, linear and quadratic equations, systems of equations, functions and their graphs. Open only to students who plan to enroll in MTH 131 or MTH 150. This course does not fulfill the all college quantitative reasoning requirement. (Offered Fall semester.)

MTH 131 Applied Calculus (QR) (4.00 SH). A one-semester study of applications of differential and integral calculus with emphasis on polynomials, exponential functions, logarithmic functions, business and economics applications. This course is for individuals with a good high school background in mathematics. This course does not provide the background for a student to continue on to Calculus II. Not available to students who have credit for MTH 150, MTH 152, or MTH 250. Prerequisites: C or better in MTH 130 or permission of the instructor or department chair. (Offered every semester.) Meets Quantitative Reasoning Intellectual Perspective requirement (QR).

MTH 135 Concepts of Statistics (QR) (4.00 SH). An introduction to the concepts of statistics. Topics include graphical and numerical summaries of data, confidence intervals and significance tests about hypotheses. Emphasis is placed on conceptual understanding and interpretation of data and statistics. Not available to students who have credit for BA/ECO 220, PSY 201, SSC 251, BIO 206. (Offered Spring semester.) Meets Quantitative Reasoning Intellectual Perspective requirement (QR).

MTH 150 Calculus I (QR) (4.00 SH). This course will focus on the fundamentals of differential calculus. Topics considered include functions, limits, continuous functions, differentiation and integration of functions with one real variable, applications of differentiation and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Students will be introduced to some basic calculus proofs. This course is suggested for all students who expect to continue for any advanced degree including finance, law, and medicine. (Offered every semester.) Meets Quantitative Reasoning Intellectual Perspective requirement (QR).

MTH 152 Calculus II (QR) (4.00 SH). This course will focus on the fundamentals of integral calculus, including techniques and applications of integration. Other topics include infinite series and introductory topics from differential equations. Prerequisite: C- or better in MTH 150 or the permission of the instructor. (Offered every semester.) Meets Quantitative Reasoning Intellectual Perspective requirement (QR).

MTH 310 History Of Math (4.00 SH). This elective course will investigate an area of mathematics outside of the core mathematics curriculum. A description of the topic will be distributed prior to registration. Prerequisite: C- or better in MTH 241. (Offered Fall semester, odd years.)

MUS 185 Arts Develop Child (VP) (4.00 SH). Learning about music and other art forms through the performance of various techniques as they relate to the developing child, focusing on pre-K through 4th grade. Students will experience elemental music concepts through singing, playing instruments (including the keyboard lab), moving, active listening, and creating music. Through role playing as both teachers and children, students will learn about music, plus learn how music may be used in conjunction with additional areas of the curriculum, such as the visual arts. Theatre (pretending, dramatization) will be incorporated into class activities, as well. Students will also learn about the elements of visual art, and explore a variety of media as they pertain to early childhood. Meets Visual and Performing Arts Intellectual Perspective requirement (VP).

PED 301 Early Child Move (1.00 SH). This course introduces the student to the factors influencing the changes in the development and learning of motor skills from infancy – Grade 4. Practical laboratory activities are utilized to illustrate basic concepts of motor development and motor learning.

PED 302 Adapted Physical Ed (PE) (1.00 SH). This course is designed to provide perspectives for teachers and special educators in the field of physical education. The student will gain an understanding of working in an adapted physical education setting. The student will learn to facilitate and enable learning in the least restrictive environment.

PED1 301 Early Childhood Movement (1.00 SH).

PED1 302 Adapted Physical Education (1.00 SH).

PED2 301 Early Childhood Movement (1.00 SH).

PED2 302 Adapted Physical Education (1.00 SH).

PHY 101 Physical Science (SD) (4.00 SH). A study of the basic phenomena and science concepts of the physical world. The course makes use of an integrated lab-lecture period and relies on observation, reasoning, and an activity-based approach to understanding ideas and solving problems. Topics studied include motion, heat, electricity, magnetism, light, optics, and materials science. Meets Scientific Discovery Intellectual Perspective requirement (SD).

PHY 121 Astronomy (SD) (4.00 SH). A primarily descriptive course treating the basic observations, phenomena, and understandings of the physical universe. A laboratory is included. Offered Spring Semester. Meets Scientific Discovery Intellectual Perspective requirement (SD).

PHY 141 Foundations Physics I (SD) (4.00 SH). The first semester of an introductory study of physics (mechanics, heat, electricity, magnetism, waves, light and modern physics) without calculus. Basic principles used in both semesters are introduced in the first semester. Some emphasis will be given to applications of physics to biological systems. A laboratory is included. Prerequisite: a good background in high school mathematics including algebra and trigonometry. Offered Fall Semester. Meets Scientific Discovery Intellectual Perspective requirement (SD).

PHY 151 Principles Physics I (SD) (4.00 SH). The first semester of an introductory study of physics (mechanics, heat, electricity, magnetism, waves, light and modern physics). Basic principles used in both semesters are introduced in the first semester. Some basic concepts of calculus may be introduced as needed. A laboratory is included. Co-requisite: MTH 150 or higher. Offered Fall Semester. Meets Scientific Discovery Intellectual Perspective requirement (SD).

PSY 101 Intro To Psychology (ST) (4.00 SH). Principles of human and animal behavior. The study of individual, group and institutional behavior in context. Offered every semester. Meets Social Thought and Tradition Intellectual Perspective requirement (ST).

PSY 212 Personality (ST) (4.00 SH). A critical survey of the major theories of personality structure, dynamics, and development. Meets Social Thought and Tradition Intellectual Perspective requirement (ST).

PSY 213 Psychology of Prejudice (ST) (4.00 SH). This class will apply social psychological theory and research to understand the psychological underpinnings of prejudice. Students will explore the impact of prejudice on members of targeted groups with a particular emphasis on understanding the experience of racism. Grounded in psychological theory and research, students will explore current social issues related to prejudice as well as specific ways to reduce stereotyping and prejudice on both a personal and societal level. Meets Social Thought and Tradition Intellectual Perspective requirement (ST).

PSY 219 Early Child Development (ST) (4.00 SH). A chronological approach to the principles and theories of child development from birth-11 years of age. This course fulfills the developmental psychology requirement for early childhood education majors.

PSY 241 Organizational Psychology (4.00 SH). A study of the interaction of individual and structural characteristics which influence productivity and human dignity in all organizational settings. Primarily utilizing case-study methods.

PSY 261C Neural Networks (4.00 SH).

PSY 411 Exceptional Child (4.00 SH). An exploration of the etiologies, characteristics, treatment and outcomes in adulthood for the exceptionalities of childhood and adolescence. These include intellectual giftedness, mental retardation, neurological and sensory impairment, emotional/ behavioral disorders and autism. Prerequisite: PSY 221 or consent of instructor.

SCI 130 Physics for the Curious (SD) (4.00 SH). A study of physics from multiple perspectives. First by exploring both how physics developed (from early astronomy) and the boundaries of what it means to do science. We then probe an experimental/applied aspect of physics through a study of the behavior of fluids culminating in the design and construction of model airplanes. Finally we focus on a theoretical aspect of physics using quantum electrodynamics as a case study. Meets Scientific Discovery Intellectual Perspective requirement (SD).

SCI 140 Weather (SD) (4.00 SH).

SCI 141 Flight (4.00 SH).

SCI 150 Intro to Forensic Science (SD) (4.00 SH). A study of the science behind forensic investigations. Case studies will be used to link the science with real world examples. Laboratory experiences involve using forensic analysis techniques to solve a “crime.” Meets Scientific Discovery Intellectual Perspective requirement (SD).

SCI 294 Women in Science (SD) (4.00 SH). A study of the personal and professional lives of women who have succeeded in science careers, within the context of their historical and cultural environments. Political, philosophical, and technological changes affect what science is done, by whom, and for what purpose. Laboratory time will involve projects in the biological and physical sciences, conducting scientific studies similar to those done by many of these women early in their scientific careers. Meets Scientific Discovery Intellectual Perspective requirement (SD).

SED 201 Foundations Special Education (ST) (4.00 SH). This course is designed as an introduction to the field of special education for students seeking careers in education. It includes such topics as: identification, placement, programming, inclusive practices, advocacy, and other topics relating to persons who have disabilities from historical, medical, educational, societal, and individual points of view. Meets Social Thought and Tradition Intellectual Perspective requirement (ST).

SED 201C C:Foundations Special Education (4.00 SH).

SED 402 Behavior Management Spec Edu (4.00 SH). This course is designed to provide a basic understanding of the characteristics of students with learning and behavior problems with respect to factors that influence the instructional environment while providing classroom management theory and practical applications for students who have special needs.

SED 404 Reading Strategies Sp Ed (4.00 SH). This course is designed to provide specific instructional reading techniques and strategies to assist the learner who has been identified as being at-risk for failure due to poor reading skills or as having special needs.

SED 411 Legal Issues Assessment (2.00 SH). The focus of the course is on the analysis of legislation, litigation, and administrative rulings related to special education. The course will emphasize the development of legally sound policies and procedures to ensure an appropriate education for students with disabilities. Pre-service teacher candidates will become familiar with a variety of assessment instruments and techniques to use to effectively instruct children who have disabilities in PreK-8 settings.

SED 412 Assessment Methods (2.00 SH). The course will emphasize the development and implementation of assessment procedures for students who have disabilities. Pre-service teacher candidates will become familiar with a variety of assessment instruments and techniques to administer to effectively evaluate children who have disabilities in PreK-8 settings.

SED 413 High Incidence Strategies (2.00 SH). This course is designed to provide practical application of knowledge about learners who have high incidence disabilities, theory, best practices, regulations, and research as related to a practicum component in PreK-8 schools working with students who have special needs in a classroom setting. The goal of the courses is to assist future special educators to prepare for the unique role of a teacher in a field that is rapidly changing as a result of shifts in public school policies, school reform, questions of efficacy, limitations of resources, teacher roles and expectations, and advocacy.

SED 414 Low Incidence Strategies (2.00 SH). This course is designed to provide practical application of knowledge about learners who have low incidence disabilities, theory, best practices, regulations, and research as related to a practicum component in PreK-8 schools working with students who have special needs in a classroom setting. The goal of the courses is to assist future special educators to prepare for the unique role of a teacher in a field that is rapidly changing as a result of shifts in public school policies, school reform, questions of efficacy, limitations of resources, teacher roles and expectations, and advocacy.

SED 462 Special Ed Practicum (2.00 SH). This course is designed to provide pre-service teacher candidates with hands-on experiences in observing and assessing children who have disabilities. In PreK-8 settings, students will teach lessons, progress monitor, administer assessment instruments, use curriculum based measurement, and evaluate and interpret the results for instructional purposes.

SED 572 Field Experience Special Ed (2.00 SH). This course is an off-campus experience in either a PreK-8 school or institutional setting intended to provide the student with opportunities to participate with teachers and children who have special needs in classrooms. For Early Childhood PreK-4/Special Education PreK-8 majors and other minors who desire an experience with children or youth who have disabilities. Prerequisites: Must have completed at least three semesters and two education courses at Westminster College and have a GPA of at least 2.800. Graded S/U.

SED 605 Special Ed PreK-8 Capstone (6.00 SH). Student teaching (12 SH) is a supervised dual student teaching experience open to Early Childhood PreK-4 and Special Education PreK-8 majors who have completed the pattern of required courses. Students are required to participate in related seminars and meetings. In addition to the regular tuition and fees, there is a student teaching fee.

SOC 101 Principles of Sociology (ST) (4.00 SH). In taking this course, students will become more aware of the effects of social forces on the individual. The course provides an introduction to the concepts and methods used in the systematic study of society. Topics include: social norms, social groups, social conflict, social inequality, social institutions, social change, and the sociological perspective. Meets Social Thought and Tradition Intellectual Perspective requirement (ST).

SOC 102 Deviance (ST) (4.00 SH).

SOC 104 Social Inequality (4.00 SH).

SOC 105 Cultural Anthropology (HC) (4.00 SH). A study of the cultures and social structures of pre-industrial societies, in the contemporary developing world and within still existing indigenous societies. Special attention is given to cultural diversity, theories of societal development, and historical relationships between industrial and pre-industrial societies. Meets Humanity and Culture Intellectual Perspective requirement (HC).

SOC 106 Individual & Society (ST) (4.00 SH). Analysis of the interrelationship between society, culture, and the individual with emphasis upon the emergence of self and the participation of the individual in social processes. Attention is paid to comparative theories of action and empirical studies. Meets Social Thought and Tradition Intellectual Perspective requirement (ST).

SOC 107 Sociology of Gender (ST) (4.00 SH). An examination of the social and historical influences upon behavior as it is differentiated by gender. The pattern of learning sex roles as well as the current redefinition of such roles will be discussed. Material from a variety of sources will be examined with the intent of both documenting and explaining this differentiation of roles. Meets Social Thought and Tradition Intellectual Perspective requirement (ST).

SOC 108 Social Problems/Policies (ST) (4.00 SH). An examination of societal intentions and actions for resolving issues of public concern such as poverty, unemployment, and the well-being of those who are sick, disabled, displaced, at risk, dependent or racial/ethnic minorities. Both historical and ideological factors will be explored as will be the consequences of action in terms of social programming and policies. Meets Social Thought and Tradition Intellectual Perspective requirement (ST).

SOC 109 Minority/Majority (4.00 SH).

SOC 150 Women Cross-cultural (4.00 SH).

SOC 201 Juvenile Delinquency (ST) (4.00 SH).

SOC 202 Criminology (4.00 SH).

SOC 204 Social Work (4.00 SH). An exploration of the knowledge base, theories, and methods that social workers use. Several of the major fields of practice are examined including family and child welfare, health care, mental health, criminal justice, and gerontology.

SOC 209 Minority/Majority (ST) (4.00 SH). This course will trace the history of race as a concept, examine how racial and ethnic relations changed over time in the U.S., analyze the causes and consequences of prejudice and discrimination, and consider how majority-minority relations shape life chances for various groups in the U.S. and throughout the world. Some of the topics we cover include: ethnic identity, popular culture, segregation, immigration, racial profiling, and interracial relationships. Meets Social Thought and Tradition Intellectual Perspective requirement (ST).

SOC 214 Social Class in America (ST) (4.00 SH). An examination of the various forms and systems of social inequality in human societies, with attention to the mechanisms that perpetuate inequalities, ideologies that legitimate them, and possibilities for social mobility. Particular focus is on social class inequality in the contemporary United States and the social problems of poverty and homelessness. Meets Social Thought and Tradition Intellectual Perspective requirement (ST).

THE 351 Theatre History (HC) (4.00 SH).

THE 370 Theatre History I (HC) (4.00 SH). History of theatre and its relationship to the arts and sciences: Greek, Medieval, Renaissance and the Age of Reason. Major emphasis of study focuses on the correlation between the physical stage, the theatrical conventions, and the playscripts of the period. Meets Humanity and Culture Intellectual Perspective requirement (HC).

THE 371 Theatre History II:18th-Present(HC) (4.00 SH). History of theatre and its relationship to the arts and sciences: Romantic Period and the Modern/Post-Modern World. Major emphasis of study focuses on the correlation between the physical stage, the theatrical conventions, and the playscripts of the period.

WRI 111 Writing (4.00 SH). These courses concentrate on the skills of discovering, selecting, and developing ideas. Students will learn how to research topics, organize and develop their thoughts, and revise and edit their writing with attention to grammar and style. Students will develop their ability to analyze, summarize, and argue. Through these skills, they will learn strategies for effectively developing and expressing ideas to different audiences. As they research, students will develop their ability to use a variety of standard print and electronic sources. Required of all first-year students. Students will take 111 either in the Fall or the Spring Semester. A minimum passing grade of C- is required for graduation.

WRI 121 Honors Writing (4.00 SH). An advanced course in writing that engages Honors students in challenging and significant readings and sophisticated expository assignments. Prerequisite: Participation in College Honors.

 

What can you do with an Education degree?

Imagine yourself a preschool teacher, an elementary school teacher, a high school teacher, or a special education teacher in a public or private school.