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Biology

Biology students study living matter. The program at Westminster College offers small class sizes, professors focused on student achievement, and a transformative educational experience that prepares students for numerous career paths. Students begin with Foundations courses in the areas of cellular biology and genetics, anatomy and physiology, evolution, ecology and biodiversity, and biostatistics. Upon successful completion of these introductory courses, students enroll in advanced courses where they explore new topics in more detail and expand on their laboratory and field skills. The culmination of the biology program is an individualized Capstone research project, which allows each student to collaborate with a faculty member as they apply knowledge and skills from their course work to a novel research project. The department also offers field and travel opportunities so students can observe and apply biological principles beyond the classroom environment. Students interested in the health-related professions can receive additional advisement by the Medical Professions Advisory Committee (MedPAC). Students interested in graduate school or research can receive additional advisement from our Research Professions Advisory Committee (ResPAC).The rigorous study of biology combined with a traditional liberal arts education provides our graduates with exceptional placement with employment and into pre-professional and advanced degree programs.

Requirements for the Major

Biology and Supporting Courses:

BIO 201 Cell Biology and Genetics
BIO 202 Evolution, Form and Function
BIO 203 Biodiversity and Ecology
BIO 206 Biostatistics and Experimental Design
BIO 601 Biology Capstone
BIO 602 Biology Capstone
CHE 117 Principles of Chemistry
CHE 261 Organic Chemistry I
PHY 141 Foundations of Physics I OR PHY 151 Principles of Physics I

And one of the following Cell Biology and Genetics courses:

BIO 301 Microbiology
BIO 302 Cell and Molecular Biology
BIO 303 Molecular Genetics and Heredity
BIO 304 Developmental Biology

And one of the following Evolution, Form and Function courses:

BIO 334 Physiology
BIO 337 Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy
BIO 338 Evolution
BIO 363 Animal Behavior
BIO 335 Anatomy and Physiology I AND BIO 336 Anatomy and Physiology II

And one of the following Biodiversity and Ecology courses:

BIO 360 Ecology
BIO 361 Biological Diversity

And 8 semester hours of elective biology courses that must be numbered 300 or above (See Course Descriptions)

*Note Excluding BIO 590 Field Experience/Internship, and limited to no more than four semester hours of BIO 620 Independent Study and eight semester hours of BIO 660-690 Honors Research.

And 12 semester hours from the following supporting courses (must be from at least two different disciplines):

CHE 180 Inorganic Chemistry
CHE 230 Chemical Analysis
CHE 262 Organic Chemistry II
CHE 380 Principles of Biochemistry
CS 151 Principles of Computer Science I
MTH 131 Applied Calculus (4 SH) OR MTH 150 Calculus I
MTH 152 Calculus II
PHY 142 Foundations of Physics II OR PHY 152 Principles of Physics II

Requirements for the Secondary Education Teacher Certification

Biology and Supporting Courses:

BIO 201 Cell Biology and Genetics
BIO 202 Evolution, Form and Function
BIO 203 Biodiversity and Ecology
BIO 206 Biostatistics and Experimental Design
BIO 601 Biology Capstone
BIO 602 Biology Capstone
CHE 117 Principles of Chemistry
CHE 261 Organic Chemistry I
PHY 141 Foundations of Physics I OR PHY 151 Principles of Physics I

And one of the following Cell Biology and Genetics courses:

BIO 301 Microbiology
BIO 302 Cell and Molecular Biology
BIO 303 Molecular Genetics and Heredity
BIO 304 Developmental Biology

And one of the following Evolution, Form and Function courses:

BIO 334 Physiology
BIO 337 Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy
BIO 338 Evolution
BIO 363 Animal Behavior
BIO 335 Anatomy and Physiology I AND BIO 336 Anatomy and Physiology II

And one of the following Biodiversity and Ecology courses:

BIO 360 Ecology
BIO 361 Biological Diversity

And 8 semester hours of elective biology courses that must be numbered 300 or above (See Course Descriptions)

*Note Excluding BIO 590 Field Experience/Internship, and limited to no more than four semester hours of BIO 620 Independent Study and eight semester hours of BIO 660-690 Honors Research.

And 12 semester hours from the following supporting courses (must be from at least two different disciplines):

CHE 180 Inorganic Chemistry
CHE 230 Chemical Analysis
CHE 262 Organic Chemistry II
CHE 380 Principles of Biochemistry
CS 151 Principles of Computer Science I
MTH 131 Applied Calculus (4 SH) OR MTH 150 Calculus I
MTH 152 Calculus II
PHY 142 Foundations of Physics II OR PHY 152 Principles of Physics II

Students seeking secondary education teacher certification in biology must take the following courses and complete all of the requirements for a minor in Secondary Education

Requirements for the Minor

Biology Courses:

BIO 201 Cell Biology and Genetics
BIO 202 Evolution, Form and Function
BIO 203 Biodiversity and Ecology

And one of the following Cell Biology and Genetics courses:

BIO 301 Microbiology
BIO 302 Cell and Molecular Biology
BIO 303 Molecular Genetics and Heredity
BIO 304 Developmental Biology

And one of the following Form and Function courses:

BIO 334 Physiology
BIO 337 Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy
BIO 338 Evolution
BIO 363 Animal Behavior
BIO 335 Anatomy and Physiology I AND BIO 336 Anatomy and Physiology II

And one of the following Biodiversity and Ecology courses:

BIO 360 Ecology
BIO 361 Biological Diversity

Course Descriptions

Biology Courses:

BIO 101 Concepts of Biology (4 SH). A general survey course designed for education majors and students making a transition to the biology, molecular biology, or environmental science curriculum. (Students from other non-sciencemajors seeking to fulfill their Scientific Discovery IP should consider other 100-level courses.) Students explore ways of observing and thinking about fundamental biological processes common to many living organisms. The goal of this class is to help students become better citizens and teachers of science by increasing their ability to make informed decisions regarding current and future scientific discoveries. Emphasis is placed upon identifying and studying topics of a biological nature that are relevant to modern society. A laboratory is included, during which time students will apply the scientific method and develop critical thinking and inductive reasoning skills. Offered every semester.

BIO 102 Understanding Evolution (4 SH). A course for the non-science major. Biological evolution is examined from a historical perspective, from inception to our current understanding of this unifying theory of biology. Natural selection and the modern genetic theory of evolution as continuing processes are emphasized, as are the ways that evolution as a theory is testable by the scientific method. A laboratory is included. If this course is offered as a cluster, students must also register for ENG 106.

BIO 103 Biology of Aging (4 SH). The study of aging as a normal biological process characterized by progressive changes in form and function at all levels of organization—molecules, cells, tissues, organs, and the whole organism. Current models to explain the phenomenon of aging are examined. Larger issues including the moral and ethical implications of increased longevity are considered. A laboratory is included. If this course is offered as a cluster, students must also register for SOC 301. Not open to biology or molecular biology majors.

BIO 105 Pattern and Process in the Natural World (4 SH). This is a cluster course for the non-science major. Students will learn how scientific discoveries are made and they will use the scientific method to investigate biological systems. Ecological concepts will be used to illustrate biological patterns at the individual, population, and community level and to explain the importance of change in the natural world. A laboratory which emphasizes field work is included.

BIO 106 Human Biology: Health, Homeostasis and the Environment (4 SH). An introductory course for non-sciencemajor designed to introduce the student to the workings of the human body. Emphasis will be placed on an understanding of how an homeostatic balance must be maintained for proper functioning of our various organ systems. A laboratory is included. This course is intended for non-sciencemajors and is not open to biology, molecular biology, neuroscience, or environmental science majors.

BIO 108 Human Genome Project (4 SH). An introductory course for non-science majors. The primary objectives of this course are to provide college students with a fundamental understanding of scientific technologies and concepts underlying the Human Genome Project and genetic research, and to make students aware of the ethical, social, and legal implications of this monumental achievement. Students will also develop an appreciation for the types of questions that science can and cannot answer using the scientific approach. During laboratory sessions, students will study the inheritance patterns of humans and other organisms, extract DNAfrom their own cells, analyze their DNA using a variety of genetic techniques and participate in a mock trial. If this course is offered is a cluster, students must also register for ENG 137.

BIO 112 Pharmacology and Drug Discovery (4 SH). An introductory course for non-science majors that aims to give students a background in what drugs are, how drugs affect the body, and how a drug is discovered and approved for public use. This course will cover basic concepts in human physiology, the cellular and molecular level aspects of drug function, and ethical considerations surrounding drug testing and drug use to treat childhood dysfunctions. The laboratory section of this course will include hands-ondemonstrations of the scientific method, detailed case studies, and exercises that promote scientific literacy and critical evaluation of marketing claims. If this course is taught as a cluster, students must also register for EDU 201, where different disabilities are discussed on a weekly basis that correspond with drugs and treatments discussed in BIO 112.

BIO 113 Global and American Epidemics. An introductory course for non-science majors which explores the causes, pathology, epidemiology and treatment of infectious diseases, through examples of epidemics that have occurred throughout history in the United States and that are occurring currently around the globe. We will also take a look at emerging diseases such as hemorrhagic fevers and multi-drug resistant infections. BIO 113 is a service-learning course. Students will be expected to participate in an ongoing, service learning project which includes the development of educational materials to enhance the education of school children in Africa. A laboratory component is included and BIO 113 fulfills the SD IP requirement for graduation.

BIO 151 Biology of Sex (4 SH). A course for non-science majors, examining biological aspects of human sexuality. Content covered will include male and female reproductive anatomy and physiology, the biology of sexual responses, sexual dysfunctions, genetic basis of sex, sexual development, pregnancy and birth control, sexually transmitted diseases, and biological perspectives on gender identity. While the course focuses on a biological understanding of sex, information and perspectives from other disciplines will be liberally incorporated. Laboratories will both reinforce specific course content as well as provide opportunity for students to apply scientific methodology and hypothesis testing. Course subjects and materials are frank, explicit and graphic; suggested for students with serious interest and mature sensibilities. If this course is offered as a cluster, students must also register for ENG 106.

BIO 201 Cell Biology and Genetics (4 SH). This course serves as an introduction for students who have chosen biology or molecular biology as a major or minor. A combination of lectures, laboratory exercises, and assignments will introduce students to ways of observing and thinking about fundamental concepts and processes in the following areas of biology—biochemistry, cell structure and function, metabolism, genetics, and biotechnology. Various resources will be utilized to reinforce biological concepts, learn new laboratory skills, and improve critical thinking skills. Multiple sections offered every Fall Semester; one section offered every Spring Semester.

BIO 202 Evolution, Form and Function (4 SH). BIO 202 is the second in a series of three foundational courses in biology, designed to serve as an introduction for students who are taking a biology or molecular biology major or minor. Using explorative lectures coupled with investigative laboratories, BIO 202 will focus on evolution, the structure and physiology of plants and animals, and animal development. Concepts and practices of experimental design, data analysis, and interpretation of results will be reinforced and extended through integrated laboratory activities. Prerequisite: completion of BIO 201. Offered Spring Semester.

BIO 203 Biodiversity and Ecology (4 SH). This course is the last in a series of three foundational courses in biology, and serves as an introduction for students who have chosen biology as a major or minor. A combination of lectures, laboratory exercises, and assignments will introduce you to the diversity or organisms and their ecological interactions. Various resources will be utilized to reinforce biological concepts, enhance the learning experience and use of practical skills, and to improve critical thinking skills (textbooks, scientific journals, laboratory experiments, writing assignments, etc.). Prerequisite: completion of BIO 202. Offered Fall Semester.

BIO 206 Biostatistics and Experimental Design (4 SH). An introductory course in experimental design and data analysis designed to encourage an understanding and appreciation of the role of experimentation, hypothesis testing, and data analysis in biology. The course will emphasize principles of experimental design, methods of data collection, exploratory data analysis, and the use of graphical and statistical tools commonly used by biologists to analyze data. Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 201. Offered every semester.

BIO 301 Microbiology (4 SH). A study of the diversity in viruses, bacteria, fungi, and algae with an emphasis on the role of evolution in generating the diversity found in microorganisms. Consideration will be given to various energy metabolisms, genetic strategies, molecular systematics, and microbial adaptations that allow such diversity. Also considered will be the importance of microorganisms in medical, industrial, and environmental settings. A laboratory is included. Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 201. Offered Spring Semester.

BIO 302 Cell and Molecular Biology (4 SH). A study of molecular structure and function in eukaryotic cells. Topics include organic molecules that contribute to cells the function of cells, membrane transport and signal transduction, gene expression, intracellular transport, structure and motility, energy conversions, tissue composition and cell division. Laboratory exercises will reinforce many of concepts covered in lecture. Required for the molecular biology major. Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 201. Offered Fall Semester.

BIO 303 Molecular Genetics and Heredity (4 SH). This course serves as a broad introduction to the structure and function of nucleic acids, processes that regulate expression of genetic information, and processes that direct inheritance of genetic information. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic organism will serve as model systems for studying topics such as nucleic acid structure, function, replication, damage, repair, and control of gene expression. Additional topics include, but are not limited to, Mendelian genetics, epigenetics, population genetics, and the genetics of cancer. Weekly laboratory exercises are an essential component of this class and will be used to explore various molecular and biochemical techniques for isolating, replicating and analyzing nucleic acid sequence as well as studying modes of inheritance. Required for the molecular biology major. Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 201. Offered every other Spring Semester.

BIO 304 Developmental Biology (4 SH). A study of the mechanisms of organism development from fertilization to birth. Both molecular and classical morphologic aspects of development are covered, with emphasis on the vertebrates. A laboratory is included. Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 202.

BIO 334 Physiology (4 SH). An introduction to the physiology of cells and animals. Major emphasis is placed on the functional interrelationships that exist within cells and organisms. A laboratory is included. Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 202. Offered Fall Semester.

BIO 335 Anatomy and Physiology I (4 SH). First of a two-coursesequence studying the anatomical and physiological principles of the human body, including a survey of the major organ systems of the human body and their relationship to health and disease. Emphasis is placed on cells, tissues, and the musculo-skeletal nervous,, and endocrine systems. Alaboratory is included. Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 202. Offered Fall Semester, alternate years.

BIO 336 Anatomy and Physiology II (4 SH). Second of the two-coursesequence studying the anatomical and physiological principles of the human body. Emphasis is placed on the cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, urinary, immune, and reproductive systems. A laboratory is included. Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 335. Offered Spring Semester, alternate years.

BIO 337 Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy (4 SH). A study of the phylogenetic history of the vertebrates through gross anatomy. Emphasis is placed on adaptive radiation of structures which are homologous through the classes of the vertebrate subphylum. The laboratory includes dissection of representative vertebrates. Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 202. Offered Spring Semester, alternate years.

BIO 338 Evolution (4 SH). A study of the population as the unit of evolution. Considered are the origins of life, gene pools and genetic equilibrium, adjustments and adaptations to the environment including natural selection, fluctuations in numbers, genetic drift, polymorphism, isolation, and the origin of races and species. A laboratory is included with some field work. Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 202. Offered alternate years.

BIO 360 Ecology (4 SH). A study of the structure of ecological populations, communities, and ecosystems, and the processes that affect them. Topics include population growth, regulation and dynamics, population interactions, food webs, species diversity, succession, biogeography, and energy flow and nutrient cycling. Laboratories stress experimental design and data analysis. Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 203. Offered every Spring Semester. ( Also listed as ES 360 .)

BIO 361 Biological Diversity (4 SH). An in-depth, cross-sectional study of the diversity of eukaryotic organisms. Pertinent to this course is the evolutionary process which is centered on adaptation, diversity, natural selection and speciation. Topics include paleontology, life histories, survival strategies in feeding and reproduction, biogeography and patterns of extinction. The social, ethical and political consequences of human activities will also be addressed. This course assumes reasonable knowledge of all major taxa and schemes of taxonomy. The laboratory component will consist primarily of field work. Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 203. Offered every other Fall Semester.

BIO 363 Animal Behavior (4 SH). An introduction to the fascinating fields of animal behavior. This course focuses on the relationships between animals and their environments through adaptation, communication and social organization. It also explores other exciting issues such as, what animal behavior can teach us about ourselves, how economic game theory has been used to explain evolution of behavior, and how our understanding of animal behavior is changing the way we treat them. The lab component consists mainly of field work and bench work in the form of animal observations and a possible field trip to a wild animal facility. Prerequisites : C- or better in BIO 202 or PSY 201; willingness to spend significant amounts of time watching animals. ( Also listed as PSY 315.)

BIO 401 Recombinant DNA and Biotechnology (4 SH). This course examines traditional and more recent advances in nucleic acid analysis and manipulation. Topics include genome analysis, subcloning, sequencing, gene expression, microarrays, RNAi, bioinformatics, vaccine development, pharmacogenomics, and gene therapy. Information literacy assignments reinforce topics covered in lecture and lab. Weekly laboratory exercises are an essential component of this class and will be used to reinforce and explore many of the concepts covered in lecture. Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 302 or 303. Offered every other Spring Semester.

BIO 402 Biology of Global Infectious Diseases (4 SH). This course investigates the causes, pathology, prevention and treatment of important infectious diseases that occur around the globe. The course is in a lecture/discussion format with focus on case studies and readings from primary literature, and includes hands-onlaboratory investigations of living microorganisms. BIO 402 is a service-learning course. Students will be expected to participate in an ongoing, service learning project which includes the development of a lab manual and a set of experiential learning exercises to aid in the health education of school students at home and overseas. Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 201 and BIO 203.

BIO 403 Biology of Cancer. This course provides students with a general introduction to the nature of cancer, a conceptual understanding of the molecular events underlying the development of human cancers, and an historical perspective on its underlying causes, including the role of tumor viruses, cellular oncogenes and tumor suppressors. The larger implications of these causes will be addressed by studying the mechanisms of tumorigenesis, metastasis, and angiogensis. In addition, students will investigate the development and clinical use of therapies based on major discoveries in cancer research. This is a textbook-based course, but will involve substantial use of the related primary literature and will include a laboratory component exploring a range of techniques used in the study of cancer biology. Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 302. Offered every other Spring Semester.

BIO 433 Behavioral Neuroscience (4 SH). Analysis of how nervous systems activity underlies sensory, perceptual and higher cognitive activities including motivation, memory, language, thought and mental illness. A laboratory is included. Prerequisite: PSY 101 or BIO 201. ( Also listed as NS 341 and PSY 341 .)

BIO 434 Neurobiology (4 SH). This course is an exploration of advanced topics in the field of neurobiology, with the focus being the nervous system as the central control and integrating system in animals. It reviews fundamental neuroanatomy and neurophysiology, as well as more specific topics such as sensory systems, neuroendocrinology and nervous system development and disease. Recent advances published in the field of neurobiology will also be discussed. The lab component will be complementary to material covered during lectures. Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 334 or BIO 335. Offered Spring Semester in alternate years. ( Also listed as NS 434.)

BIO 461 Field Biology (4 SH). This course examines the local flora and fauna and is based upon field observation, natural history, and identification of local plants and animals. The lab component will involve extensive field work, including techniques for monitoring and assessment, and will be a major focus of this course. Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 338, 360, or 361.

BIO 463 Marine Biology (4 SH). Adetailed study of marine organisms and their interactions with physical, chemical, and biological factors in their environment. Adaptations of the most important groups of marine organisms will be examined from evolutionary, ecological, and physiological points of view. Major marine ecosystems will be described. In addition, the course will examine how marine organisms and ecosystems are affected by human activities and how those activities affect the future of ocean resources on Earth. Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 338, 360, or 361. Offered Spring Semester, alternate years.

BIO 464 Freshwater Biology (4 SH). A study of inland water systems, including lakes, rivers, estuaries, and wetlands. The biological, physical, and chemical features of these systems are described, and the interaction between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems is discussed. A laboratory emphasizing field work is included. Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 338, 360, or 361.

BIO 465 Introduction to GIS (4 SH). This course is an introduction to the theory and use of Geographic Information Systems, including the fundamental concepts of GIS, capabilities of GIS, and applications for dealing with spatial data. Key issues for discussion will include data input, data models, database design and database queries, sources of information for spatial databases, spatial analysis, computational algorithms, and information presentation. Other issues such as the nature of geographic phenomena to be represented in a GIS, comparisons of different GIS representational schemes, and appropriate use of geographic information will also be covered. These topics will be discussed within an environmental context using ArcView, a PC-basedGIS software package. ( Also listed as ES 465.)

BIO 520, 521 Biology Travel Course (4 SH). Acombination of on-campusstudy, with off-campus study in a natural setting to gain firsthand knowledge of biological concepts and principles that are particularly well illustrated in the region being studied. Experiential, problem-based learning is emphasized. The specific region, topics, and focus are likely to change with each offering.

BIO 590-594 Field Experience/Internship (1-4 SH). An experience planned cooperatively with a research center, laboratory, clinic, government agency, or similar institution. The course does not replace any of the three biology elective courses for a biology major. Prerequisite: department approval after submission of an internship application.

BIO 601 Biology Capstone (2 SH). The first semester of a two-coursesequence emphasizing biological discovery and the synthesis of knowledge and skills from previous courses in the major. Focus of the capstone is on application of the scientific method through the design, execution, analysis, and presentation of an experimental study. In the spring of their junior year, students produce a formal proposal for research to be completed in the second half of the capstone, BIO 602. Required of all biology and molecular biology majors. Prerequisites: Junior or senior status, and successful completion of BIO 201, 202, 203, and 206, and above a 2.0 GPA within the major (all courses listed as BIO). Offered Spring Semester.

BIO 602 Biology Capstone (2 SH). The second semester of the capstone experience. Students in the class perform individual studies that were proposed in the prior semester, analyze their data, and present the results of their research in an appropriate forum. Required of all biology and molecular biology majors. Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 601. Offered Fall Semester.

BIO 620-624 Independent Study (1-4 SH). Prerequisite: department approval after submission of a proposal.

BIO 660, 670, 680, 690 Honors Research (2-4 SH). Prerequisites: Successful completion of BIO 201, 202, 203, and 206 and a minimum GPA of 3.500 (total GPA, and GPA of courses in the major) are required to be considered for Honors Research. Honors Scholars are expected to attend and participate in BIO 601 while they write their Honors proposal. They are also expected to attend and participate in BIO 602 while completing their Honors research project. Honors status will be assessed and reviewed at various points during the Honors research project by an Honors Committee and select members of the biology department.

 

Supporting Courses:

CHE 117 Principles of Chemistry (4 SH). Acourse emphasizing stoichiometry, chemical equilibria, acids and bases, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, electrochemistry, nuclear phenomena, and interactions of science and society. In the laboratory program students will investigate chemical systems, analyze observations and data, devise explanations, and communicate results. Prerequisites : High school chemistry and an acceptable score on a placement test or completion of CHE 111 or ES 160 with a grade of C- or better. Offered Fall and Spring semesters.

CHE 180 Inorganic Chemistry (4 SH). A study of the energetics of the bonding and reactions of inorganic compounds. Emphasis is given to the periodicity of the chemical and physical properties of the elements. Major themes of the course include effective nuclear charge, lattice energy, charge density, acid/base theories, and the descriptive chemistry of all of the elements. The laboratory includes the investigation of the energetics of reactions, the synthesis and analysis of coordination compounds, qualitative chemistry, and the communication of results. Prerequisite: CHE 117 with a grade of C- or better. Offered Fall and Spring semesters.

CHE 230 Chemical Analysis (4 SH). A study of the theoretical foundation and skills necessary for the solution of problems encountered in the area of quantitative chemical analysis, including classical and modern methods. Emphasis is given to the evaluation and presentation of data, sampling, equilibrium dynamics of analytically important reactions, experimental design, volumetric techniques, absorption and emission spectroscopy, electrochemical methods, and analytical separations. Examples and laboratory exercises will include environmental air, soil and water systems. Prerequisites : CHE 117, and MTH 135, MTH 150 or BIO 206 (may be co-requisite) with grades of C- or better. Offered Fall and Spring semesters. (Also listed as ES 230.)

CHE 261 Organic Chemistry I (4 SH). An overview of organic chemistry. Organic molecules are compared by their functional group, focusing on nomenclature, physical properties, and the major chemical reactions used in synthesis and identification. Emphasis is also given to the areas of acidity, basicity, stereochemistry, aromaticity, and spectroscopy. Laboratory activities involve techniques for determination of physical and chemical properties, and methods of purification. Prerequisite: CHE 117 with a grade of C- or better. Offered Fall and Spring semesters.

CHE 262 Organic Chemistry II (4 SH). A study of organic reactivity. This course details organic molecules by reactivity and emphasizes the differences between organic reactions. Specifically, organic reactions will be surveyed by type of reaction keying on the movement of electrons, molecular orbitals, and energetics. Spectroscopy is employed to monitor structural changes. Laboratory activities also probe the reactivity of molecules and explore the relationship between structure and reactivity. Prerequisite: CHE 261 with a grade of C- or better. Offered Spring Semester.

CHE 330 Elements of Physical Chemistry (4 SH). A study of the macroscopic and microscopic behavior of matter. Topics include the laws of thermodynamics, the models of quantum mechanics, and the behavior of time-dependent processes. Prerequisite: CHE 117, MTH 150 and PHY 142 or PHY 152. Offered Fall Semester.

CHE 380 Principles of Biochemistry (4 SH). A chemical study of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids in a biological context. Emphasis is placed on the structure to function of these biological molecules and their context within organisms. Energy transductions and concepts of metabolism are also introduced. Prerequisite: CHE 261. Offered Fall and Spring semesters.

CS 151 Principles of Computer Science I (4 SH). A broad introduction to the discipline of computer science, with attention given to many components of the field. Topics include an examination of subfields of computer science, computer representation of data, an introduction to hardware structure, and fundamentals of programming languages. Special emphasis is given to techniques for problem solving and algorithm development, designing and implementing computer programs, and software analysis and verification methods. Prerequisite: prior programming experience recommended.

MTH 131 Applied Calculus (4 SH). A one-semesterstudy of applications of differential and integral calculus with emphasis on polynomials, exponential functions, logarithmic functions, business and economics applications. This course is for individuals with a good high school background in mathematics. This course does not provide the background for a student to continue on to Calculus II. Not available to students who have credit for MTH 150, MTH 152, or MTH250. Prerequisites : Cor better in MTH130 or permission of the instructor or department chair.

MTH 150 Calculus I (4 SH). This course will focus on the fundamentals of differential calculus. Topics considered include functions, limits, continuous functions, differentiation and integration of functions with one real variable, applications of differentiation and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Students will be introduced to some basic calculus proofs. This course is suggested for all students who expect to continue for any advanced degree including finance, law, and medicine.

MTH 152 Calculus II (4 SH). This course will focus on the fundamentals of integral calculus, including techniques and applications of integration. Other topics include infinite series and introductory topics from differential equations. Prerequisite: MTH 150.

PHY 141 Foundations of Physics I (4 SH). The first semester of an introductory study of physics (mechanics, heat, electricity, magnetism, waves, light and modern physics) without calculus. Basic principles used in both semesters are introduced in the first semester. Some emphasis will be given to applications of physics to biological systems. A laboratory is included. Prerequisite: a good background in high school mathematics including algebra and trigonometry. Offered Fall Semester.

PHY 142 Foundations of Physics II (4 SH). The second semester of an introductory study of physics (mechanics, heat, electricity, magnetism, waves, light and modern physics) without calculus. Some emphasis will be given to applications of physics to biological systems. A laboratory is included. Prerequisite: PHY 141 or PHY 151. Offered Spring Semester.

PHY 151 Principles of Physics I (4 SH). The first semester of an introductory study of physics (mechanics, heat, electricity, magnetism, waves, light and modern physics). Basic principles used in both semesters are introduced in the first semester. Some basic concepts of calculus may be introduced as needed. A laboratory is included. Co-requisite: MTH 150 or higher. Offered Fall Semester.

PHY 152 Principles of Physics II (4 SH). The second semester of an introductory study of physics (mechanics, heat, electricity, magnetism, waves, light and modern physics). Calculus methods will be used. A laboratory is included. Prerequisite: PHY 151; Co-requisite: MTH 152 or higher. Offered Spring Semester.

Resources & Facilities

Resources and Facilities

The Department of Biology is housed in the Hoyt Science Resources Center, a modern building that is well equipped to provide contemporary educational experiences in biology and the other sciences. The Hoyt Science Resources Center is also home to the Departments of Chemistry, Mathematics and Computer Science, Physics, and Psychology as well as the Mack Science Library and the Westminster Computer Center. The building includes six lecture rooms, three smart classrooms, three computer laboratories, an auditorium, a planetarium, and four seminar/conference rooms.

Resources and Facilities

An important part of the educational venture in biology at Westminster is the opportunity for students to have hands-on laboratory experience with up-to-date equipment. For this purpose, the Department of Biology contains specialized labs and rooms for electron microscopy, histology, culture of microorganisms/cells/tissues, molecular genetics, biological rhythms, low temperature studies, small animal surgery, photography, and biological illustration. The department also has a museum/herbarium, a darkroom, a computer room, a controlled plant growth room, and environmental chambers. Two greenhouses and an animal housing suite with specialized rooms for maintaining small mammals, aquatic organisms, reptiles, amphibians, and insects also support the program. The department contains sophisticated equipment unique for colleges the size of Westminster: Zeiss 109 transmission electron microscope, JEOL 35-CF scanning electron microscope, Perkin-Elmer PCR thermocycler, IEC cryostat/microtome, fluorescence microscope, inverted microscope, refrigerated high-speed centrifuges, carbon dioxide incubator, laminar flow tissue culture chamber, ultra-low temperature freezer, and refrigerated marine aquarium.

Resources and Facilities

The department has seven teaching laboratories, each fully equipped to instruct up to twenty students in settings designed for individualized instruction. Two student project labs and six faculty/student research rooms allow for on-going investigations, independent study, and honors research.

 

 

Resources and Facilities

In addition to the fine facilities in the Hoyt Science Resources Center, the Department of Biology includes the 40 acre Outdoor Laboratory, for Biological and Environmental Science, the 15 acre Brittain Lake, and the 40 acre College Woods. The Outdoor Laboratory which is appropriated specifically for field biology studies, includes a year-round weather station, several buildings including a Nature Center/Classroom, the Lucille Beerbower-Frey Nature Trail, lowland thicket, pasture, arboretum, successional and experimental plots, marsh, spring-fed stream, and the Little Neshannock Creek. Brittain Lake, named in honor of J. Frank Brittain, is used for ecology and limnology field classes. The College Woods is a beech-maple forested area used for field studies requiring a mature woodland. It includes a recreational walking trail.

Tri Beta

Tri-Beta Crest

What is Tri-Beta?

Tri-Beta is a national biology honor society. Hundreds of chapters are located in colleges and universities throughout the United States and Puerto Rico. Beta Beta Beta represents three main purposes to promote scholarship in the biological sciences, to promote the dissemination of biological knowledge, and to encourage research. The organization's motto is "To see the foundation of life."

What does Westminster College's chapter of Tri-Beta do?

Tri Beta has regular meetings and events including a Welcome Back picnic, Pumpkin Carving, the Haunted Bio Trail, Induction Ceremonies in fall and spring, a Meet-the-Faculty dinner, Christmas party, a spring planting party, a trip each semester, and an End of Year picnic. Past trips have included visits to the Pittsburgh Zoo, the Phipps Conservatory, and the National Aquarium in Baltimore. This fall we will be visiting the Cleveland Metroparks Zoo and in the spring we are going to Washington D.C. Tri-Beta is also dedicated to helping our members and alumni by providing networking opportunities and by hosting events and speakers related to professional/graduate school and career opportunities. We are always looking for suggestions to improve our group and welcome ideas!

Who can be a member of Tri-Beta?

There are two levels of membership at Westminster College: associate and regular.

  • Associate members must have taken one biology course. Associate members do not have to meet a GPA requirement.
  • Regular members must have taken three biology courses, one upper-level biology course, and maintain a 3.0 GPA. Only regular members are able to hold offices in Tri-Beta and wear honor cords at graduation.

How do I join Tri-Beta?

To join Tri-Beta, you need to fill out a registration form available from our officers and turn it in with your dues to the Vice-President. Dues to become an associate member are $35 and dues to become a regular member are $45. Associate members can upgrade to regular membership for $10. Each member must pay dues of $5 to our chapter each semester.

Contact Tri-Beta

To contact Tri-Beta, please e-mail any of our officers listed below. Also, be sure to check out our group on Facebook (under Westminster Tri-Beta) and LinkedIn (under Westminster College Tri-Beta).

Tri-Beta Officers

  • President – Melanie Perello perellmm@wclive.westminster.edu
  • Vice-President – Sam Higgins
  • Treasurer – Cassy Holets
  • Secretary – Rachel Mooney
  • Historian – Hilary Stenger

 

What can you do with a Biology degree?

Imagine yourself a medical doctor, marine biologist, forensic scientist, physical therapist, veterinarian, or ecologist.

Quick Facts


Biology

Degree Offered

Bachelor of Science


 

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